BIOLOGY FINAL REVIEW •What type of biomolecule are enzymes? –Protein •What is the basic building block of proteins? –Amino acids •An atom’s second energy level holds ___ electrons. –Eight •The basic unit of life is the ____. –Cell •What type of bonds are found in unsaturated lipids? –Double bonds •Cells that contain a nucleus are classified as _______. –Eukaryotes •The information gathered during the experiment is called ______. –Data •The passing on of traits from parents to offspring is called _____. –Heredity •Cells containing two alleles for each trait are described as ___ cells. –Diploid •The female gamete is called a(n) ____ cell. –Egg •_____ is the organelle that is gel-like and holds the other organelles –Cytoplasm •Which type of cell has ONLY a cell membrane? –Animal •Cells that only contain ONE allele for each trait are called ____ cells. –Haploid •A structured procedure for collecting information to test a hypothesis is called the ______. –Experiment •The part of the experiment in which all conditions are kept the same is called the ___. –Control •What is the function of chlorophyll? –Absorption of sunlight •The sequence of growth & division of a cell is called the ___. –Cell Cycle •In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor in the ETC is _____. –Oxygen •Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between… –Two phosphate groups •What is the longest phase of the cell cycle? –Interphase •The pairing of ____ in DNA is the key to insuring the code. –Nitrogen bases •A DNA nucleotide is made up of a phosphate, nitrogen base and…. –Deoxyribose sugar •______ structures show similarities between organisms. For example, birds & mammals that share similar bone structures –Homologous structures •Where in the cell does translation take place? –Ribosomes •What organelle is responsible for storage? –Vacuole •Write an example of a heterozygous genotype. (using the letter B) –Bb •What type of inheritance shows a blending of the trait? –Incomplete dominance •What type of inheritance expresses both traits EQUALLY? –Codominance •What type of inheritance pattern controls blood types? –Multiple alleles •Sex-linked traits are usually carried on the __ chromosome. –X chromosome •What process creates gametes? –Meiosis •____ is the replacement of a defective gene with a normal gene –Gene therapy •A ____ is a tool that charts chromosomes according to size, banding & centromere location –Karyotype •The entire collection of genes within the human race is called the _______. –Human genome •____ is used to transfer DNA from one organism to another –Vector •____ is the father of binomial nomenclature –Carolus Linnaeus •____ is the science of grouping & naming organisms –Taxonomy •What human genetic disorder is caused by having only one X sex chromosome? –Turner syndrome •___ is a tool used to compare DNA fragments –DNA fingerprinting •What genetic disorder results in the person having Trisomy 21? –Down Syndrome •____ are organisms that contains functional recombinant DNA –Transgenic organism •What is an example of an ABIOTIC factor? –Soil quality –Water quality –Temperature –Amount of sunlight –Amount of rainfall •What is an example of parasitism? –Deer & tick –Human & tapeworm –Flea & dog •_____ is the manipulation of DNA –Biotechnology •What is the function of the ribosome? –Make proteins •Plant cells make their food in this organelle.. –Chloroplast •What are the products of photosynthesis? –Glucose & oxygen •The total number of ATP molecules made in glycolysis? –Two •Which type of consumer is found at the base (start) of all food chains? –producer •A flood would be an example of _____ succession. –Secondary •Which scientist described evolution by using the theory of natural selection? –Darwin •Where would you find the most fertile farmland? –Grasslands •Restriction enzymes cut DNA strands, leaving _____ to help join the DNA with another DNA strand. –Sticky ends •What do the arrows represent in a food web? –Energy flow •A device used by geneticists for predicting the possible offspring of 2 individuals is a(n) ____ –Punnett square •How many X chromosomes does a normal female have? –Two •On a pedigree a half shaded circle represents….. –A carrier •Hemophilia & red-green colorblindness are inherited by…. –Sex-linked trait •How many PAIRS of chromosomes are in a normal human body cell? –23 pairs •How many mature egg cells are produced during meiosis? –4 (four) •During cytokinesis, a plant cells forms a ____ between the cells. –Cell plate •What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? –Sugar, phosphate & base •When does DNA replication occur? –Interphase •The first step of cellular respiration is ___. –Glycolysis •Fermentation occurs when there is no ___ present. –Oxygen •In addition to alcohol, fermentation also produces _____ –Carbon dioxide •_____ are found in both plants & animals but in different sizes. –Vacuoles •Osmosis does not occur in a(n) ___ solution. –Isotonic •If a cell is placed in salt water, water leaves the cell by ___. –osmosis •How many electrons can be held by an atom in the first energy level? –Two(2) •The following organic compound contains H, C & O in a 1:2:1 ratio… –carbohydrate •Which organic molecules provides long-term energy & insulation? –lipid •Living things change during their lives through ____. –Adaptations •Scientific explanation of know facts arrived at through repeated testing is a ____. –theory •Please….please study for this final & Good Luck!! •Study your REVIEW PACKET!!!