The Counterculture & Protest 1960

Chapter 27
The Youth Movement
 Political & social system
 Conventional Middle Class values
 Inspired by the Beats (of the 1950’s)
 Originated with “Baby Boomers”
 By 1970- 58.4% of US 34 years old
or younger.
 1960-1965- enrollment in 4 year colleges
went from 3.1 million to 5 million.
* (1959)Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
 1962*Port Huron Statement (Tom Hayden)
Anti-Vietnam War
Anti-Big Corporation & Big Government
Also worked against poverty, nuclear power & racism
*Mario Savio (leader)
UC Berkley limited student
publications & recruitment for
political causes
Dec. 1964- Savio & UC
Berkeley students held sit-ins
on campus & police arrested
Supreme Court said students
have a right to free speech and
assembly on campus
Mostly white middle class
Hippies- rejected society
 Living & working together away from the rest of
 *Haight Ashbury District
Popular destination for
US hippies (San Francisco)
New Religion
 Unification Church
 Hare Krishna
Decline & Impact of the Counterculture
After a few years the counterculture declined.
1. Hippie communes became dangerous
2. Drug addiction =(death & overdoses)
3. Many hippies got older & moved on
Impact of the Counterculture.
1. Fashion- wore cheap surplus clothes from
earlier decades, long hair= rejected
2. Music- made use of folk music & rhythm &
1969-Woodstock (up state NY)- outdoor music
festival featured singers Bob Dylan, The Who
Pop Art
 Contained elements of
popular culture
Andy Warhol
 Pop artist
 Famous people
Bob Dylan
Jimi Hendrix
All of these created a
bigger generation gap
between old & young
 Upstate NY August 1969
 Festival of music
A Renewed Women’s Movement
19th Amendment (1920)
granted women the right
to vote.
Next 40 years, women’s
movement had little
WWII- women given
greater opportunities for
work outside home.
Post WWII- society
emphasized a
homemaking role.
1960 –1/3 of married
women were part of the
paid workforce.
Women and the Workplace
Newspaper ads separated
jobs by gender.
Banks denied women
Women paid less than men
for doing same work.
President’s Commission on
the Status of Women
1963- Equal Pay Act
 belief that men and women
should be equal politically,
economically and socially
 *The Feminine Mystique
 By *Betty Friedan – best selling
 Exposed sense of dissatisfaction
women had with the traditional
 Title VII: of the Civil Rights Act
of 1964 outlawed job
discrimination based on gender
National Organization for
Women (NOW)
 Demanded greater educational
opportunities (formed by Friedan
& others).
The Feminist Movement
Gloria Steinem: author & public figure - one of the
movement’s leading figures (editor—Ms. Magazine).
*Title IX: prohibited federally funded schools from
discriminating against women
1973- Roe v Wade: ruled that the states could not
regulate abortion in the first 3 months of pregnancy
because it was a time that would violate the
woman’s right to privacy- abortion is legal!
Right to Life: anti-abortion movement
Equal Rights Amendment: would have protected
women against discrimination – it failed (3 states
refused to ratify) opposition –Phyllis Schlafly
*Affirmative Action:
 companies doing business with federal government
should actively recruit African American employees to
improve social and economic status
*University of California Regents v Bakke (1978):
 ruled schools could use racial criteria as part of their
admissions process but couldn’t use fixed quotas
Swan v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
(1970) :
 upheld the constitutionality of busing – transporting
minority students to fully integrate schools
White Flight: Whites responded by removing
their students from public schools
African Americans
Jesse Jackson:
Congressional Black
 political leader
 People United to Save
Humanity (PUSH)
 worked at registering voters,
developing African American
businesses and educational
 1971 African American
members of Congress
organized to more clearly
represent the legislative
concerns of blacks
Hispanic Americans
*Cesar Chavez:
La Raza Unida (1969):
1968 Bilingual Education Act:
 fought for farm workers for increased wages,
union recognition and better benefits
 Created United Farm Workers
 political party begun in Texas to represent
 teaching in Spanish while also learning
 argument - they would be at a competitive
disadvantage with English speakers because
difficult to understand in another language
 directed schools to set up classes for
immigrants in their own language as they
were learning English
Declaration of Indian Purpose:
Indian Civil Rights Act:
American Indian Movement:
Indian Self-Determination and
Educational Assistance Act:
 called for policies to create greater
economic opportunities on
 Instead of wanting assimilation they
wanted more independence.
 guaranteed reservation residents
the protection of the Bill of Rights
 a more militant group that made
stands at Alcatraz and Wounded
Knee in 1970’s.
 increased funds for Native American
 expanded local control in
administering federal programs
Save the Earth
*Rachel Carson- *“Silent Spring”- book about pesticide’s effect on
the environment.
 1970- Earth Day:
 Day devoted to addressing nation’s environmental concerns
Environmental Protection Agency:
 created in 1970 by Nixon –
 set and enforced pollution standards, promoted research and
coordinated state activities
Clean Air Act:
 1970 Nixon established emissions standards for factories and
automobiles & ordered industries to comply with standards
Clean Water Act: 1972
 restricted the discharge of pollutants into the nations’ lakes and
Endangered Species Act:
 1973 established measures for saving threatened animal species
Three Mile Island: March 28, 1979
 nuclear facility outside of Harrisburg Pennsylvania overheated after
its cooling system failed & low levels of radiation escaped
National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act:
 Ralph Nader in 1966
 regulated the automobile industry for the first time in safety