Say Something!

advertisement
Sociological Theory
Say Something!
Say Something
• Read the information on the slide…whether it’s a
picture or written word
• Say Something about what you just read
–
–
–
–
–
Make a prediction
Ask a question
Clarify your thinking
Make a connection
Summarize the information so far
• Someone will respond to what you said
• That someone will then repeat the process
The Enlightenment (18th c.)
• “Age of Reason”
• Emergence of the ideal of political liberty
– Societies that were more democratic began to
replace monarchies
• Political revolutions
– French and American revolutions (1789 & 1776)
• Rise of science and rational thought
– Ascendance of science, diminishing importance of
“the church”
Industrial Revolution (19th c.)
• Shift from agrarian to industrial
• Urbanization—“push and pull” economy
• Extremes of wealth and poverty
Changes Brought by the
Industrial Revolution
• Inventions change the way we live and work, e.g.
steam engine in 1763.
• Transportation and communication systems are greatly
enhanced, e.g. trains, telegraph.
• Cities begin to dominate the western world.
• Creates a new social order with the rise of an
influential middle class.
• Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually
lead to new social and political movements.
• Desire for markets and resources entice Europeans to
take over foreign lands (imperialism).
Origins of Sociology
• Sociology as a discipline is the product of two
dramatic social changes:
1. The Enlightenment
2. The Industrial Revolution
Emile Durkheim
Karl Marx
Max Weber
Key
Problem
Understanding
the social forces
that produce
social order and
disorder
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
• Key Concepts
– Social Facts (They exist!)
• outside the individual, observable
– Division of Labor
• Mechanical Solidarity vs. Organic Solidarity
– Mechanical = more traditional, shared values, no division of labor
– Organic = more modern, high division of labor, more integrated
society, vast differences of opinion
– Anomie
• Normlessness = condition of society in which people become
detached from the norms that usually guide behavior
Key
Problem
Understanding
how the
economic
system of
capitalism
affects society
and its people
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
• Key Concepts
– Historical Materialism
• The development of societies is shaped by the ways humans
produce life’s necessities
– Class Struggle
• By its nature, capitalist society is contentious; conflict
between workers (proletariat) and owners/capitalists
(bourgeoisie)
– Surplus Value
• The difference between what someone makes off your labor
and what they pay you
– False Consciousness
• Workers’ acceptance and defense of the capitalist system
Key
Problems
• Effects of
rationality on
modern Society
• Response to
Marx’s
Economic
Emphasis
o
Not simply
economics that
produce reality, you
need culture too
Max Weber (1864-1920)
• Key Concepts
– Rationalization
• Oriented toward science, calculated, measured,
controlled
• Rational vs. non-rational—capitalism is highly rational
• All this rationality eliminates the human component
– Bureaucracy
• Modern society is oppressive, increasingly bureaucratic
because increasingly rational
Three Theoretical Paradigms
• Structural Functionalism
– Society is viewed as composed of various parts, each
with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to
society’s equilibrium
• Conflict Theory
– Society is viewed as composed of groups that are
competing for resources
• Symbolic Interactionism
– Society is viewed as composed of symbols that people
use to establish meaning, develop their views of the
world, and communicate with one another
Download
Random flashcards
State Flags

50 Cards Education

Countries of Europe

44 Cards Education

Art History

20 Cards StudyJedi

Sign language alphabet

26 Cards StudyJedi

Create flashcards