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Blood Guided Notes
What is the function of blood?
What is blood made of?
____________________________(~55% TOTAL VOLUME)
~92% _____________________
~7% _______________________
 Albumin (osmotic balance)
 Fibrinogen (clotting)
 Antibodies (immune)
 Hormones (regulation)
~1% _______________________________
 Electrolytes (osmotic and pH balance, regulating membrane permeability)
 Nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids)
 Oxygen
 Carbon dioxide
________________________ (~44% TOTAL VOLUME)
 aka red blood cells
 tiny!
 lack a nucleus, have few organelles
 contain hemoglobin – an iron-containing protein that reversibly binds to oxygen (and a small amount of
How does the structure of erythrocytes facilitate their function?
____________________________ (< 1% TOTAL VOLUME)
aka white blood cells
fight pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) and cancer
can leave the blood stream to go to infected tissue – _____________________________
summoned to damaged areas by ____________________, move by ___________________ motion
Leukocyte Types
________________________ – contain granules in cytoplasm and unusually shaped nuclei
 Neutrophils – phagocytes; abundant during bacterial infection
 Eosinophils – kill parasitic worms and increase during allergy attacks
 Basophils - assist in inflammatory response
________________________ – lack granules in cytoplasm and have normal nuclei
Lymphocytes – most numerous; include B and T cells; produce antibodies and attack infected cells
Monocytes – engulf and destroy pathogens
__________________ (<1% TOTAL VOLUME)
cell fragments
involved in blood clotting
Review 2: Structure and Function
Identify the component of blood that transports each material, and justify your response!
• Water
• Oxygen
• Carbon dioxide
• Nutrients – glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins)
• Electrolytes
• Hormones
• Immune cells
• HEAT!!
Review 3: Compare and Contrast
Compare & contrast the structure and function of erythrocytes and leukocytes
____________________ is the process of ___________________________
Occurs when small blood vessel (capillary) is damaged
Clot seals the blood vessel until the it regenerates
Occurs in just 3-6 minutes
Three major events occur, all beginning the moment the vessel is damaged:
1) ________________________________________
2) _______________________________________
3) ________________________________________
What is the recommended way to treat a bleeding wound (until you see a doctor)? Why?
Never remove gauze or a bandage from an actively bleeding wound. Why?
How is blood clotting an example of positive feedback? Which part(s) of the process best exemplify positive feedback?
Hemostatic Disorders – Blood Clots
A _________________is a blood clot that forms in an unbroken vessel. A large thrombus may block blood flow, causing
tissue death.
An __________________ is a blood clot that forms then breaks away and floats freely in the blood vessels. An embolus
may then lodge in a capillary and block blood flow.
coronary thrombosis
cerebral embolism –
pulmonary embolism
Causes of thrombus
________________ to blood vessel or build-up of __________
 Both create rough surfaces inside vessel, which may activate platelets
 Clotting factors may accumulate
Immobility increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis in legs!
Blood thinners (such as warfarin, aspirin, and heparin) can be used to prevent thrombus
Aspirin –
blocks thromboxane
Wafarin –
blocks production of certain clotting factors
Heparin –
helps inactivate thrombin
Hemostatic Disorders – Hemophilia
Recessive sex-linked trait (more common in men)
Prolonged bleeding even from minor injuries
Excessive bruising
Bruised and swollen joints
Excessive clumsiness and falling
Intravenous injection of clotting factors
Donated plasma
Synthetic clotting factors
• Occurs in the red bone marrow
Where is this found?
All blood cells and platelets derive from hemocytoblast stem cells
Erythrocyte lifecycle and production
Develop in red marrow (for 3-5 days)
Eject nucleus, then enter blood stream.
Red blood cells life for 3-4 months
Digested by phagocytes
Production is controlled by hormone
Erythropoietin release is stimulated by
Why is there no hormone to decrease RBC production?
Why do world-class athletes train at high altitude before major competitions?
Blood Groups
All cells in the body have genetically-determined _______________________________ on their surface; the
combinations of these are unique to each individual and are involved in self / non-self recognition
Some of these proteins are also ___________________________ – they cause an immune response in
individuals that do not posses them
The proteins (blood factors) that cause the greatest immune response belong to the ABO and Rh groups.
Antigen – Antibody Reactions
Antigens are foreign substances that provoke an immune response, including the release of antibodies that bind
to and attack them
Where are antigens found?
Surface of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria, etc.)
Vaccines (that’s why they work!)
Allergens (e.g. pollen, dust, etc.)
Cancer cells (foreign b/c cell has mutated)
Transplanted tissue / organs
Antibodies are proteins produced by white blood cells that bind to and destroy antigens. Antibodies are specific
to certain antigens
When antibodies bind to RBCs, they cause ________________________ or clumping
Why is this bad?
Initially, clumps clog small capillaries, causing pain and reduced blood flow
Later, RBCs that are bound to the antibodies lyse or break open, releasing hemoglobin into the blood –
which can cause kidney failure
ABO blood group
The Rh blood group
The Rh blood group describes ~45 different (but similar) antigens on RBCs. These antigens are called antigen
People are Rh + if they have any of the various D antigens. They are Rh – if the do not have any D antigens.
Unlike the ABO system, Rh- people must be __________________to the D antigen before developing antibodies.
That means Rh- people will NOT have an agglutination reaction the first time they encounter Rh+ blood … but
they will if they have it a second time.
Blood Types
Our ‘blood type’ is the combination of the antigens from the ABO and Rh groups – the two groups of antigens that cause
the strongest immune response.
What blood type do you have if you have D antigens only?
If you have A- blood, what type(s) of antigens do you have? What type(s) of antibodies?
Blood Type Compatibility
The key to transfusions:
You cannot give a person blood that has antigens for which they have antibodies, otherwise, their immune system
will attack that blood.
Blood Type
Can donate to
Can receive from
What type is the universal donor?
What type is the universal recipient?
Blood Type Compatibility & Pregnancy
For the most part, blood type compatibility is NOT a problem during pregnancy because the blood of the baby
and the blood of the mom do not mix.
However, _____________________________________________ can face serious risks because the mother’s Rh
antibodies can cross the placenta and attack the babies blood.
There are often no problems to the first Rh+ baby carried by an Rh- mom… why?
If the mom becomes pregnant with a ____________ Rh+ baby, her immune
system will attack the baby’s blood, causing brain damage or death to
the fetus.
This can be prevented by giving the mother medicine that prevents her
from developing antibodies against Rh antigens.
Blood Typing
_______________________ is a solution
that contains antibodies against a specific
antigen (i.e. antiserum A contains type A
Blood type is determined by adding
antiserum A, B, and D to blood and
observing whether or not agglutination
What does an agglutination reaction with a
certain antiserum mean?
Genetics Refresher
We have two versions – or ___________________ – of every gene. One inherited from our mom, one from our dad.
The two alleles (___________________) interact to determine our trait (____________________) in predictable ways.
Some alleles are ___________________, some are _____________________. Dominant genes show
their trait and ‘cover up’ recessive genes.
IA (A) and IB (B) are dominant to i (O).
D (+) is dominant to d (–)
Some alleles are ________________________. This means both alleles fully express their trait.
IA and IB are codominant with each other
Genotype to Phenotype
What blood type will result from each genotype?
1. IAiDD
2. iidd
3. IB IB Dd
4. IA IB dd
5. IB iDd
Phenotype to Genotype
What are the possible genotypes for each blood type?
1. A+
2. AB3. O4. B+
Other important vocab –
____________________________ – both alleles for one gene are the same (e.g. ii)
____________________________ – the two alleles for one gene are different (e.g. Iai)
Punnett Squares
Monohybrid Crosses
Dihybrid Crosses