Chapter 4 Independence 1763-1783 Chapter 4 Section 1 The Seeds of Unrest Pages 100-106 Objectives Section 1 • 1. Explain how the British Crown responded to Pontiac’s Rebellion. • 2. Discuss why the British government passed the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act. • 3. Recount how the colonists responded to the Stamp Act. • 4. Summarize the events that led to the Boston Massacre. Governing the New Territories • American Indian resistance: After the French and Indian War the British limited the amount of rum and ammunition for trading with the Indians. The British ended the practice of giving gifts to the Indians for use of land. • The Indians were angry, they thought the trade goods and presents fair payment for allowing use of their lands. The British had been warned the Indians would wage war. • The Indians were becoming more upset by the settlers moving into the western territories. Trade had been disrupted and now lands were being taken from them. Neolin • American Indian known as the Delaware Prophet. He traveled among the Indians trying to convince them to return to ancient practices. He encouraged the Indians to drive out the settlers. • Pontiac, Ottawa chief, heard the message. Pontiac called upon other tribes to unite and destroy the enemy known as the settlers. Most of 1763 was about waging war on the frontier. Pontiac’s Rebellion • The rebellion ended when the Indians failed to take Forts Detroit and Pitt. The Indians had attacked the forts for several months without any success. Ammunition was running short and no outside support from the French. The British possessed military control of Indian lands in the West. Neolin’s Prophecy culture • Neolin’s tribe, the Delaware, largely accepted European settlers and traders who took over their land. They also adopted certain elements of European culture. As a young man, Neolin reportedly had a vision in which a spiritual figure warned him that there were dire consequences for such behavior-tribal degeneration. In 1762 Neolin started to preach openly against Europeans. He told American Indians followers that they could cleanse themselves by adopting new behavior, driving the British from their territory, and taking potions to induce vomiting. The Proclamation of 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Successes • Proclamation of 1763: • Barred settlement west of Appalachians • Required traders to obtain permission before entering territory. Failures • Attempted to tax colonists to recover costs of fighting rebellion Financing the Empire • The Proclamation of 1763 wasn’t the only British policy that upset the colonists. Parliament wanted the colonies to pay for the “protecting and securing the frontier.” • To raise the money to recover from the French and Indian War the British knew it had to come from taxes. • Sugar Act-1764: Act imposed a duty, or import tax, on foreign sugar, molasses, and other items entering Great Britain’s American colonies. This is the first time the British actually enforced the law. • Stamp Act-1765: The British imposed a revenue law. All printed materials such as: advertisements, legal documents, diplomas, newspapers, and playing cards. Colonial Protests • The British knew the colonists wouldn’t be happy about the tax. In the past colonial assemblies had passed taxes with little protest. This time it was Parliament where the colonies had no representation. • Nonimportation agreements: colonial merchants promised not to buy or import British goods. • Sons of Liberty: were committees of artisans, lawyers, merchants, and politicians formed to protest the Stamp Act. The group relied on pamphlets, petitions, and public meetings to gain support. On occasion they would resort to violence. Activity • Imagine that you are colonists living in Boston shortly after the passage of the Stamp Act. • Design a handbill with text and images illustrating the colonial response to the Stamp Act. ( handbills should reference the nonimportation agreements, protests against the Stamp Act, the Sons of Liberty, or the Stamp Act Congress. ) Repeal of the Stamp Act • Samuel Adams: leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty. The Stamp Act passage, allowed him to become a political activist. He was a propagandist who knew how to stage demonstrations and write articles. • Stamp Act Congress: October, 1765-delegates met in New York City to protest the tax on the colonies. This was a mark towards unified resistance. • British merchants supported the boycotting of goods and services, but knew it would hurt business. They pressured Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. The Act was repealed in March of 1766. • Declaratory Act: 1766, went unnoticed by the colonies-This act declared that Parliament had full power and authority to make laws…..to bind the colonies and people of America. • The right of Parliament to tax colonies was unresolved. The Townshend Acts • Townshend Acts: 1767- the finance minister of Britain, Charles Townshend, never really understood the colonists point of view about the stamp act. They would accept taxes at the colonial port. • Parliament placed import duties on items as tea, lead, glass, and dyes for paint. • Writs of Assistance: British implemented search warrants. These were general search warrants. Custom officials could search vessels, warehouses, or homes for smuggled goods. Quartering Act • In response to the British army’s difficulties in quartering soldiers in the colonies, Parliament decided to pass a quartering act. The measure required the colonies to house soldiers in barracks, alehouses, or empty buildings and to provide beds, heat, light, and other supplies free of charge. In 1765 this American Mutiny Act, also known as the Quartering Act , went into effect. The colonists regarded the new law as unfair. New Jersey’s assembly objected to the act on the grounds that it imposed an unfair tax on the colonies. The Boston Massacre • 1768: General Thomas Gage dispatches troops to Boston to put down protests and support the writs of assistance. • March 5, 1770: The Boston Massacre occurs outside the customs house. Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty placed a political spin on the event. • Several months later the British soldiers were tried for murder, defended by John Adams. The soldiers were branded on the hands and released.