September 27, 2012 Do Now: Answer the following question on a separate sheet of paper: Do you consider psychology to be a real science? Explain your answer in 35 sentences. **If you are not in your seat working on your Do Now when the bell rings, you will be marked late** Do Now Do you consider psychology to be a real science? Question Research Gathering of information Hypothesis Procedure Data Observation Conclusion Was the hypothesis correct or incorrect? Placebo • A “medicine” that has no active ingredients and works by the power of suggestion. Double Blind Study • A study during which neither participants nor experimenters know to which groups the subjects belong. Subjects • People or animals on which a study is conducted. Variables are factors that change in an experiment. Independent Variable -The factor in a study that is controlled or manipulated by the experimenter Dependent Variable -The factor in a study that changes or varies because of changes in the independent variable Plants’ height growth Hours spent studying Amount of water given Weight gain Types of soda drank # of home runs hit Different weather conditions Students’ grades Research Methods Types of Research 1. Descriptive Research – characterizes the who, what, when, where, and how about a certain population or phenomenon 2. Correlational Research – measures the relationship between two variables 3. Experimental Research – examines the causal relationship between two or more variables Naturalistic Observation • Behavior is observed in the environment in which it occurs naturally. • Watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural environment – Unobtrusive measure, no intervention by researcher • Example: Jane Goodall’s studies of chimpanzees in the wild use of tools • Example: Watching a student’s behavior in the classroom Naturalistic Observation Pros: – Allows understanding of behavior in a natural setting (avoids artificiality of laboratories) Cons: – Like other descriptive research, observation describes behavior rather than explaining it. – Can be difficult to be unobtrusive in some cases – Ethical concerns Case Study • Behavior of one person or a few people is studied in depth. • Examples: – Person with TBI – A puppy living with goats – A child growing up with a pack of wolves Case Study Pros: – Allow for detailed understanding of an individual’s psychology – Can suggest ideas for future research Cons: – Any given individual may be atypical, nonrepresentative of the general population Surveys • A large number of participants are asked a standard set of questions (i.e. beliefs, attitudes, preferences, behaviors) • Intended to draw conclusions about the opinions or behaviors of a certain population by surveying a sample from that population • Examples – Voting habits – When people do their shopping – Course evaluations Surveys Pros: – Inexpensive – Easy to do quickly – If the sample is truly random, surveys can provide a representative depiction of the population as a whole. • Cons: – Sources of bias • How questions are phrased • Only those who have a strong opinion may it mail back Correlational Research • Uses statistical methods to examine the relationships between two or more variables. • Examples: – Media violence and violent behavior – Hours studied and test scores • Non examples: – Shoe size and length of fingernails – Water drank and number of countries visited Correlational Research Positive correlation: An increase in one variable predicts an increase in the other (i.e. height and weight) Negative correlation: An increase in one variable predicts a decrease in the other (i.e. self-esteem and depression) Correlation of 0: No relationship between the variables Correlational Research Pros: –Cheap and easy to do ? Cons: –Does not explain why something has a positive/negative relationship –One does not always cause the other Summary • Is psychology a real science? • What are some of the research methods that psychologists use in their work? • How does a psychologist use the Scientific Method to understand human behavior? • What is an example of something a research psychologist might study and how might an applied psychologist use those findings?