Biology Objective 3

Demonstrate an understanding of the
interdependence of organisms and
the environment.
Biotic – the types of plants and animals that live
Abiotic – nonliving characteristics such as soil type,
rainfall amounts, and average temperature cycles.
Choices: Grasslands, Desert, Temperate Forest,
Tundra, Rainforest, Boreal forest
Not sure?
Biosphere – The entire
area of the planet that
supports life.
Biome – An area defined
by specific abiotic and
biotic factors.
Community – The groups
of living things in an area
and how they relate.
Symbiosis is a close relationship
between two living things.
When both are helped it is called
When one is helped and there is
no effect on the other it is called
When one is helped and the other
is harmed it is called parasitism
Sharks are cleaned
by a little fish
known as a
Remora. The shark
never eats them
since they clean
bacteria off of the
shark. The remora
use the shark
bacteria as a food
source. Since both
species are helped,
this is mutualism.
Orchids live high
in tree-tops on
the branches of
large trees.
They do not
harm the tree,
but they are
helped by
being raised up
into the
sunshine and
receiving water.
Parasites harm
or kill the host.
A good
example is a
tape worm. It
intercepts all of
the hosts food,
causing the
host to starve
to death.
8. Clown fish are small reef fish that seek protection
from predators by sheltering themselves among
the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. Clown fish
are very territorial and can potentially scare off
predators of sea anemones. This relationship is an
example of -A. neutralism
B. mutualism
C. parasitism
D. commensalism
Remember all living things expend (use)
F. sunlight
H. oxygen
J. carbon dioxide
At one end of the diagram are
plants. They are called producers
since they are capable of turning
sunlight into food by
They pass 10% of the energy they
absorb to animals that eat them.
1st Order Consumers eat
only plants and are also
called herbivores.
2nd Order Consumers eat
primary consumers and
are called carnivores.
3rd Order Consumers; eat
secondary consumers;
they are also known as
If a consumer eats both animals
and plants, it is called an
14. Wolves and hawks are at the same trophic
level because they —
Trophic level
A both live on land
Means 1st , 2nd
B are both large mammals
rd Order
C both eat primary consumers
D have similar hunting patterns
43 Approximately how
much of the energy
available in the tissues of
the producer is eventually
incorporated into the tissues
of a secondary consumer?
A Less than 1%
B Between 20% and 30%
C Approximately 50%
D More than 50%
Arrows in a food chain
show the direction of
energy flow.
This is not the only feeding
relationship for these
When several or all of the
food relationships are
shown it’s a . . .
Food webs attempt to show all the feeding
relationships in a community.
The direction of the arrows shows the
direction of energy flow.
At the bottom of every web and every chain is
a plant. These are the only things that can
turn sunshine into food.
20. Which of these groups
of organisms would
most likely have
accumulated the largest
concentration of a longlasting chemical
pollutant in their bodies?
Need help?
A Phytoplankton
B Zooplankton
C Lake trout
D Gulls
Prey are the animals
that are eaten as a
food source for the .
Predator. This is the
hunter animal.
The population of the
predator must be less
than the prey or they do
not have enough food.
Population (100s)
Time (months)
22 Which of the following is most
likely to cause increases in a
predator population?
F. Fewer prey
G. A reduction in competition
H. More parasites
J. A period of drought
Population (100s)
Time (months)
This is the maximum number of a specific
population that an area can support with
enough food and living requirements. It is
shown by a line on population graphs for a
specific species.
F. competing with
G. making its own
H. hiding from
J. running very
(rain and snow)
falls on plants
and ground.
Plants respire
and evaporate
water back into
The ground
filters the water
run-off into the
lakes where it
26. The diagram
shows physical
changes that
occur in the water
Name each labelled
process on your
answer sheet. Use
scientific terms.
Glucose C6H12O6 is
produced by
plants, eaten by
Animals exhale
CO2 which is taken
in by plants to
make glucose.
Lightning and bacteria in the ground
“fix” nitrogen into a form usable by plants.
Nitrogen is absorbed by plants, through
their roots as nitrates, so they can be used
to build amino acids essential for building
proteins, enzymes, and
the nitrogen bases of DNA.
Ozone O3 is a protective layer at the top of
the atmosphere.
However, when it occurs near the ground, it
is very harmful to all living things, it is
More than 90% of
fresh water is
locked in ice at the
polar caps and in
Much of the fresh
water is polluted by
land run-off,
dumping of wastes
and excess heat
directly into lakes,
oceans and rivers.
Global warming,
also called the
Greenhouse Effect
is caused by excess
burning of fossil
fuels and
destruction of our
oxygen producing
protista in the
oceans, and
deforestation on
land. Less plants
means less oxygen
and more CO2.
F Recycling cardboard
G Washing small loads of
H Driving large cars
J Building wooden fences
There are natural variations in all
 As climate changes occur, and as
pressures in terms of food, space, shelter
and predation occur, some variations
allow a species to survive.
 The members who survive then reproduce
causing the change to become a
characteristic of the species.
Geographic isolation
can cause two
different natural
variations to
become prominent
causing two
separate species.
isolation can have
the same effect.
A population is extinct when the last of that
species is dead.
Example: There are no more dinosaurs.
What happened? Their habitat was destroyed.
When they no longer have what they need to
live, they die.
These are imprints or
remains of living
 In undisturbed layers
of sedimentary rock,
the deeper it is, the
older it is.
 Give us information
about extinct species.
Homologous means
they have the same
origin, but may be
different now.
Example, the upper
arm bones in dogs,
cows, cats and
Analogous means they
have the same
function but come
from different origins.
Example, bird wings
and wings of bats.
Viruses are not
alive because they
can not reproduce
on their own
They do not grow
and develop
They do not
exchange with
their environment
Measles, mumps, colds,
influenza, cold sores,
mononucleosis, EpsteinBarr virus are all illnesses
that are caused by a virus.
A virus has a coat, a strand
inside of DNA or RNA, and
some type of attachment
Bacteria can cause illnesses, too, however
90% of all bacteria is helpful, NOT harmful.
Without bacteria, you would not be able to
make or eat cheese or ice cream. Without
them, you would be ill most of the time.
Strep throat and staph infections are
examples of bacterial infections.