Agriculture Review ANS

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Warmup
• A model is useful in that it
A. Conveys the whole truth about a phenomenon
B. Eliminates the complexity associated with the
world
C. Provides a comprehensible and limited view of a
phenomenon
D. Relies completely on empirical data for
confirmation or refutation
E. Eliminates the need to use math or quantifiable
data
What is this chart illustrating?
Secondary
activities
Primary
activities
Most of these are located in
__________________.
????
Review
How did agriculture first develop?
1.
2.
3.
4.
People were hunter-gatherers
Gatherers dropped fruit
Locations with dropped seeds produced fruit
Hunter-gatherers noticed this process
Which gender was probably the first to
discover agriculture?
• Females because they were the gatherers
What is the difference between
subsistence and commercial
agriculture?
• Subsistence – food produced for self and
family; labor intensive
• Commercial – food produced to sell for profit;
capitol intesive
What is the commercial farming
practiced in MDCs known as?
• Agribusiness
Describe the process of slash-and-burn
agriculture.
1. Cut sections of forest
2. Burn it to ash
3. Let the ashes seep in to the ground
(swidden)
4. Plant crops
What is swidden? Is it sustainable?
Describe the soil of the rain forests.
Nutrient poor
What is shifting cultivation?
• Slash and burn agriculture
How much of the world’s land area is
covered by shifting cultivation?
• 36 million square kilometers
• 14 million square miles
How does pastoral nomadism relate to
transhumance?
Describe the relationship between
intensive subsistence and crop
rotation.
How many crops do plantations
usually grow?
• 2 cash crops (cotton, tobacco, sugarcane,
rubber)
How did plantations play a role in
American history and when did they
decline?
Explain the location of dairy farms in
MDCs.
• Can be located farther from the market due to
transportation, refrigeration, and
pasteurization.
• Up to 300 miles from market.
Who is the largest producer of grain in
the world?
What is the most important crop
grown, and why is it important?
How is ranching in MDCs different
from pastoral nomadism?
• Ranching is commercial, sedentary.
• Pastoral nomadism is subsistence, nomadic.
How does the farm subsidy system
work in the United States?
• Government money to help farmers if there is
under- or over-production.
Why do environmental advocates push
for the limited use of chemical
pesticides?
Pesticides, if overused, can seep into the soil
and into the water table
Where are most drugs produced? To
whom are they sold?
Give an illustration of desertification.
How has modern technology and
population affected the world’s
oceans?
For each of the following causes, list
the effect (this is based on your book
and class discussion)
1970s: Studies show that beef is fatty
1990s: The Atkins diet craze (anti-carbohydrate)
2000s: Genetically modified foods are widespread
1930-2012 Food Pyramid
2015 Food Pyramid
Fully define the Green Revolution
• The invention and rapid diffusion of more
productive agricultural techniques during the
1960s through the 1980s.
• These techniques involved higher-yield (high
production) seeds and chemical fertilizers,
new irrigation techniques, and machinery
such as the reaper and the combine.
• Founded by Norman Borlaug
Explain increases in rice production
• In many regions in Asia, from 1970-1995, rice
production doubled.
• GR seeds went from 0% of planted rice in the
1960s to over 80% of planted rice today in
many parts of Asia.
Sources: http://countrystudies.us/philippines/62.htm
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-16514368.html
Negative Effects of the GR
• Decreased crop variations.
• Requires heavy machinery, therefore
excluding many poor farmers.
• Many new crops are resistant to traditional
pesticides.
• LDC farmers enter a cycle of dependence on
multinational corporations like Monsanto.
• Does not address economic inequality.
Positive Effects of the GR
• More food = more people who can be fed.
• New crops are more responsive to irrigation
and to petrochemical fertilizers.
• Postpones the predictions of Thomas Malthus.
• Reduction in poverty in many regions,
particularly Asia.
Gender Effects of the GR
• Women's wage-earning opportunities have
decreased because of mechanization.
Source: http://www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/Women/green-e.htm
Food Security
• Access to and availability of food,
• Resource distribution to produce food
• Purchasing power to buy food where it is not
produced.
Source: http://www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/Women/Sustin-e.htm
Sustainable Agriculture
• Agricultural practices that preserve and
enhance environmental quality.
• GR is not focused on sustainability.
• Intensive GR farming could lead to soil
exhaustion.
• Fertilizers in the GR may hurt local
ecosystems.
Food Distribution: Two Arguments
• 1 – The GR increased crop yields across the
world, driving up the supply of food and
driving down to costs. As a result, the poor
had food and more job opportunities in
agriculture.
Food Distribution: Two Arguments
• 2- The GR drove many poor farmers out of
business because they could not afford GR
seeds. Additionally, LDCs are still poor, and it
does not matter how much food is produced if
the poor cannot afford it.
Label von Thunen’s model below.
According to von Thunen, what is the
regional geography of agriculture
determined by?
RENT
How does relative location affect each
of the following categories in von
Thunen’s model?
-Horticulture and dairy- Spoils quickly, most value
per acre.
-Logging- High transport cost due to weight,
medium value per acre
-Crops and grazing- Requires enormous amounts of
land, low value per acre.
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