The Executive Branch

The Executive Branch
Question: Why did the framers of the Constitution
add an executive to the American system of
I. Formal Powers
A) Foreign Policy
1) Diplomatic
-Executive Agreements
-Recognition Power
2) Military
a. Commander-in-Chief Clause has been used
to justify presidential powers not enumerated
in the Constitution.
b. Declaration of War V. Authorization to use
B. Domestic Powers
1)Appointment Power
2) Veto Power
3) Pardon Power
4) Power to inform convene Congress
II. Informal Powers
A) Power of Persuasion
1) Related to public opinion
2) Greatest during Honeymoon period.
3) Use Bully Pulpit to get issues on the agenda.
4) Good economic news and successful military
campaigns will boost presidents approval numbers
III. Inherent Powers
A. Executive Orders
B. Prosecutorial Discretion (To enforce or not to
enforce the law, that is the question)
IV. The Paradox
A) The presidency is often portrayed as the most
important and powerful person in the world and
we expect our presidents to do great thingsā€¦..
However Americans do not like a concentration of power
in any office including the executive.
B) The power of the president is limited by
-Checks and Balances (veto override, legislative
oversight, judicial review)
-Separation of Powers
(Congress is given legislative
V. Roles of the President
A. Chief of State
-ceremonial head of government
B. Chief Executive
-execute the law and organize the executive
C. Chief Legislator
1. Modern presidents have taken the lead in
legislating and now send proposals to Congress.
a. honeymoon period
b. use of bully pulpit
c. Can use the threat of a veto to get legislation that is
favorable to him or her.
d. In the 1990s Congress attempted to give the
President a line-item veto, but the Supreme Court
ruled in unconstitutional.
-was designed to limit pork
barrel spending.
D. Party Leader
A. The President is the only nationally-elected party
leader. All other positions, such as Speaker of the
House are chosen by the individual parties.
D. Chief Diplomat
A. President takes the lead role in American
defense and foreign policy.
E. Commander-In-Chief
Which Role?