Early Civilizations

Early Nile
Overview of Ancient Egypt
Early inhabitants (Neolithic's) called the
land Kemet
 Renamed
Egypt by the Greeks
The Nile River Valley (annual floods)
 World’s
Longest River – flows from South
to North
Two Kingdoms by 4,000 B.C.E.
Lower Kingdom in the North
 Upper Kingdom in the South
 3100 B.C.E. – Menes (Narmer) invaded
Lower Egypt
 Marked
the first Egyptian Dynasty
Unifier of Upper & Lower Egypt
c. 3100 B. C. E. ?
Ancient Egyptian History
Time Frame
Nile Culture Begins
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
3900 B. C. E.
3100 – 2650 B. C. E.
2650 – 2134 B. C. E.
2040 – 1640 B. C. E.
1550 – 1070 B. C. E.
Late Period
Greek Ptolemaic Era
Roman Period
750 – 332 B. C. E.
332 – 30 B. C. E.
30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
II. Three Egyptian Dynasties
The Old Kingdom (2700-2200 B.C.E.)
The Middle Kingdom (2050-1700 B.C.E.)
Established a theocracy (god-king)
Built pyramids to honor pharoahs (mummification)
Egypt was reunited after a time of upheaval
The capital was moved to Thebes
Were invaded by the Hyksos (from Western Asia)
The New Kingdom (1600-1200 B.C.E.)
Egyptians overthrew the Hyksos – led by Ahmose
Kings began to use the title Pharaoh
III. New Kingdom Pharaohs
Hatshepsut (1480 B.C.E.) - female pharaoh
Thutmose III (Hatshepsut’s son)
Ruled because her son was too young to rule
Extensive building projects
Expanded the Dynasty to include Syria
Made an “empire” for Egypt – cultural diffusion
Amenhotep: (1370 B.C.E.) – wife Nefertiti
Decided to make Egypt monotheistic (Aton)
Changed his name to Akhenaton
Moved the capital to central Egypt
Tutankhamen (King Tut)
The boy king
Moved the capital back to Thebes
Ramses II (“the Great”)
Fought the Hittites for control of Syria
1995 C.E., a tomb was uncovered that held 50 of
Ramses 52 sons
Egypt weakened after Ramses’ death
Invasions by the Libyans and Kushites
Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs
Ramses II
Egyptian Social Hierarchy
IV. Egyptian Life
Social Order
Religion: polytheistic (except Akhenaton)
Upper class; middle class; lower class
Women's’ rights improved btwn. Old & New
Gods were depicted as part human part animal
Writing System
Hieroglyphics: carved picture symbols
Hieratic: cursive for everyday use
Rosetta Stone: part Greek and part Egyptian
Book of the Dead
The Rosetta Stone
Preparation for
the Afterlife
Journey to the Underworld
The dead travel
on the “Solar
A boat for the
journey is
provided for a
dead pharaoh in
his tomb.
Egyptian Book of the Dead
Giza Pyramid Complex
Plan of the Great Pyramid
of Khufu
King Tutankhamon’s Death
1336-1327 B. C. E.
King Tutankhamon
Treasures From Tut’s Tomb
Akhenaton: First Monotheist?
1352-1336 B. C.
Abu Simbel:
Monument to Ramses II
1279-1213 B. C.
Other Kingdoms of Nile Region
Nubia (3000 B.C.): Southern Nile region
Kush (2000 B.C.): Upper Nile River Valley
Accomplished military; close contact w/ Egypt
Under Egyptian rule for 500 years; strong trade
1000 B.C.: became independent of Egypt
Axum (700 B.C.): near the Red Sea
Successful traders (cultural diffusion)
Adopted Roman Christianity (330 A.D.)
Set up the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia