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```Geography 2009
The Map Quest Student
Atlas of the World
Submitted to Gloucester Township
Public Schools
by
C. Stephen Ingraham
10
Numbered stars indicate
notebook pages
Social Studies Block #___
Your first &amp; last name
Mr. Ingraham &amp; Mrs. Ross
Today’s Date
Wiki: http://timescapes.pbworks.com
e-mail: [email protected]
Table of Contents
Geography
Table of Contents
1. Latitude &amp; Longitude Song
2. Pre-Test
3. Key Concepts
4. Three Geography Diagrams
5. How to read a map (A&amp;B)
6. Compass Rose
7. Eastern Hemisphere Map
8. Latitude Lines
9. Longitude Lines
10. Latitude &amp; Longitude
11. Map Practice
12. Performance Assessment
This is how Mullen students roll….
We are always on time to class
We come prepared to learn.
We always allow other students to learn.
We respect the personal space of others.
Latitude &amp; Longitude Song
Sung to the “The Wheels on the Bus”
1
I’m climbing the ladder of latitudes,
latitudes, latitudes.
The rungs on the ladder are latitudes, parallel around the world.
We use latitudes to measure North or South,
North or South, North or South.
North or South of the equator we measure in latitude.
It’s a long, long way from pole to pole,
pole to pole, pole to pole.
It’s a long, long way from pole to pole, so we call those longitudes
We use longitude to measure East or West,
East or West, East or West.
East or West of the Prime Meridian we measure in longitudes.
Ms. Fleming &amp; Mr. Ingraham
Geographic Review: All things Change
Answer these Questions.
2
1)How many continents are there?
2) List as many as you can by name
3) How many Oceans are there?
4) List as many as you can by name.
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Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes
Evening News Announcer:
“And now the evening news.
A terrible tsunami has
struck the coast of
Sri Lanka….”
What would you like to know
next?
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Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes
Radio Announcer:
“Now listen boys and girls
WAAM is sponsoring a free
concert to be held at Third
and Market Streets in
Wilmington….”
What would you like to know
next?
Essential Questions:
As a result of this Unit of study you will be able to answer these questions:
What is geography?
Why is the study of geography important to me?
What are the tools geographers use?
What is location?
What are the characteristics of place?
What is the difference between location and place?
How do humans interact with their environment?
How does climate affect humans?
How do geographical landforms affect movement, ideas, cultures,
and technology?
How do natural resources affect human activities?
How does technology impact the Earth and the way people live
upon it?
What are the ways that humans have affected the environment?
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Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes
a)Where are we?
Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes
a)Where are we?
b) What kind of place is Gloucester
Township?
Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes
a)Where are we?
b) What kind of place is Gloucester
Township?
c) How do humans and the
environment affect each other?
Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes
a)Where are we?
b) What kind of place is Gloucester
Township?
c) How do humans and the
environment affect each other?
d) How would our lives change if
our movement options changed?
Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes
a)Where are we?
b) What kind of place is Gloucester
Township?
c) How do humans and the
environment affect each other?
d) How would our lives change if
our movement options changed?
e) What are the characteristics of a
region?
CSI07
II.
Key Concepts
Place: A portion of space on a map or globe. An area with
boundaries.
Characteristics of Place:
3
1) temperature
2) weather
3) physical (natural) features
4) human features (Man Made)
Location: A site where something or somebody is. A tract of land
that has been surveyed and marked off.
Region: A part of the earth characterized by distinctive climate,
animals, plant life, or peoples.
Climate: The usual meteorological conditions including average
temperature, precipitation, and winds of a region.
Culture: A human society’s traditions, behavior patterns, art,
knowledge, and religious beliefs.
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Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes Review
a) List 5 things that describe the kind of place Gloucester Township is.
1. _______________________________________________
2. _______________________________________________
3. _______________________________________________
4. _______________________________________________
5. _______________________________________________.
b) Give an example how do humans affect the environment.
___________________________________________________
c) Give an example how environments affects humans.
____________________________________________________
d) How would our lives change if our movement options changed?
____________________________________________________
e) What are the four characteristics of a region?
1. ______________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________
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4. ______________________________________________
Geography Terms #1
Archipelago –a group of Islands.
Basin – an area surrounded by higher land: an area
drained by a river and its tributaries.
Bay – a coastal indentation of the sea or a lake into the
land.
Canal – a man-made waterway, for irrigation or
transportation.
Canyon – a deep valley with steep sides, usually with a
river flowing through it..
Cape – a point of land extending out into a body of water.
Cataract – large waterfall.
Channel – a narrow stretch of water connecting two larger
bodies of water.
Cliff (or bluff)– high, steep rock face.
Coast – a strip of land bordering the sea or ocean.
Geography Terms #2
Continental Divide – a ridge of land (divide) that separates
the great drainage basins of a continent, each basin
emptying into a separate body of water.
Delta – an area of land formed by deposits at the mouth
of a river.
Desert – an area of land with little rainfall or vegetation.
Fall line – area along which rivers form waterfalls or rapids
as the rivers drop to a lower land.
Fjord – deep, narrow inlet of the sea, with steep slopes,
formed by a glacier.
Flood plain – flat land that is near the edges of a river
and is formed by the silt deposited by floods.
Glacier – a large mass of ice that moves slowly, from
higher to lower ground.
Gulf – an extension of the sea partly surrounded by
land, larger than a bay.
Geography Terms #3
Harbor – a sheltered area along a coast where ships can safely
anchor.
Hills – an upland area, smaller than mountains, with gentle slopes.
Island – a body of land completely surrounded by water.
Isthmus – a narrow strip of land that connects two larger bodies of
land.
Lake – a body of water completely surrounded by land.
Mesa – a flat upland area with steep sides, smaller than a plateau.
Mountain – an area of land rising much higher than the land
around it, with steep slopes and pointed or rounded tops.
Mouth of river – the point where a river empties into another body
of water.
Oasis – a place in the desert with enough water to support
vegetation.
Peak – the pointed top of a mountain.
Peninsula – a long piece of land surrounded on three
sides by water.
Geography Terms #4
Plain – a large area of flat or gently rolling land.
Plateau – a large elevated area of flat land.
Point – a narrow piece of land jutting out into a body of
water, usually low-lying.
Range – a chain of mountains.
Reef – an underwater ridge, lying near the surface of
the water.
Reservoir – a man-made lake, sometimes formed by a
river dam.
River – any stream of fresh water flowing by gravity
from an upland source into a body of water or
another river. Perennial rivers flow all year:
intermittent are dry part of the year.
Sea –a large body of salt water, smaller than an ocean.
Sound – a stretch of water between an island and the
mainland.
Geography Terms #5
Source of river – place where a river or stream begins.
Strait – a stretch of water joining two larger bodies of water,
narrower than a channel.
Swamp – low-lying land permanently waterlogged.
Timberline – line on a mountain above which it is too cold for trees
to grow.
Tributary – a river that flows into a larger river.
Valley – a long, low area, usually with a river flowing through it,
and often lying between mountains or hills.
Volcano – a cone-shaped hill or mountain formed by lava and ash;
may be active or extinct.
IV.A
Reading a Map
4
Maps are drawing of places on Earth
Map Title –Tells the subject of the map
Physical – Land forms &amp; bodies of water
Political – cities and national boundaries ( borders)
Historical – dated maps
Legend (or Map Key) – is a reference that explains what the
symbols on a map stand for.
Compass Rose – direction markers
a) Cardinal Directions – North, South, East, and West
b) Intermediate Directions – Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and
Southwest.
Inset Map – small map within a larger map
Grid – North-South and East-West lines on a map that cross
(intercept) each other.
Latitude – East-West lines (horizontal – left to right)
Longitude – North-South lines (vertical – top to bottom)
Absolute Location – where lines of latitude and longitude cross to give
CSI09
you an exact global address.
IV. B
Reading a Map
Projections –Making the Round World Flat
A globe is the most accurate picture of the Earth. Only a
globe can show distance, direction and the true shape of
land and sea.
Types of Projections
Robinson – Looks right, but poles are represented as lines
rather than points, which causes many distortions.
Mercator – shows direction and shape accurately. However land
areas closer to the poles are very distorted.
Azimuthal – shows accurate direction and distance from a central
point but both are distorted near the edges
Scale (or Distance) – a ruler to compares the distance in
miles and kilometers represented on a map to a
distance in the real world.
“The Larger the Scale the More Detail”
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Compass
North
0
0
30
0
60
0
0
90 East
Compass
North
0
0
30 0
60 0
0
90 East
120
0
180
South
150
0
0
Compass
North
0
0
30 0
60 0
West 270
0
240
0
90 East
0
120
210
0
0
180
South
150
0
0
Compass
North
0
330
300
West 270
0
360
or
0
0
Cardinal Directions
30 0
0
60 0
0
240
0
90 East
0
120
210
0
0
180
South
150
0
0
Compass
North
0
330
300
West 270
0
360
or
0
0
Intermediate Directions
30 0
0
60 0
0
240
5
0
90 East
0
120
210
0
0
180
South
150
0
0
Prime Meridian
Arctic Ocean
The Eastern Hemisphere
The River Civilizations
6
ASIA
China
EUROPE
Pacific Ocean
Mesopotamia
40 O N
India
Egypt
AFRICA
Tropic of Cancer 23O 27’ N
O
20 N
Indian Ocean
Equator
0O
20O S
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Southern Ocean
Tropic of Capricorn
23O 27’ S
Geographic Perspectives: The Five Themes Review
f) Look at the list below write “Physical” if it is a feature of nature or
“Human” if it is man-made.
1. Lake __________________________________
2. City ________________________________
3. Ocean ______________________________
4. Skyscraper __________________________
5. Airport ______________________________
6. School ______________________________
7. Island _______________________________
8. Super Highway _______________________
9. Mountain ____________________________
10.Hydroelectric Dam ___________________
11.Canal _______________________________
12.River _______________________________
13. Bridge _____________________________
14. Reservoir __________________________
15. Fjord ______________________________
CSI07
We measure Latitude North
or South of the Equator.
Latitude lines, also called parallels, are 90o N
7
imaginary lines circling the Earth from
80o N
60o N
east to west. They are parallel to the
40o N
Equator.
20o N
0o Equator
They are measured in 90 degrees from
20o S
the equator to the North or South Pole.
40o S
Lines of Latitude
Each degree can be further Divided by
60 into minutes and each minute of
latitude can be divided even further
into 60 seconds.
The Latitude line dividing our classroom is
60o S
80o S
90o S
20o N
40o N
0o Equator
60o N
80o N
90o N
39 44’ 59.85” North
o
39 degrees 44 minutes 59 and 85 hundredths of a second
CSI11
North Pole
Longitude Lines
The most Important line of Longitude runs from
the North Pole to the South Pole through
Greenwich, England. It is called the
Prime Meridian and is Zero Degrees. All other
meridians are measured East or West of it.
180 degrees on the other side of the world the
International Date Line completes the circle
around the Earth.
Lines of Longitude divide the Earth into 360
degrees, which are further divided by 60 into
minutes, which can be divided even further by
60 into seconds. Because the Earth turns once
everyday on its axis (360 degrees), any point on
its surface passes under the sun each 24 hour
period.
The longitude line which runs through the center of
75 00’ 56.39”
o
our classroom is
75 degrees 56 and 39 hundredth of a second
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8
Let’s Review
Longitude &amp; Latitude Lines
South Pole
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80 E
60 E
40 E
20 E
Prime Meridian O
20 W
40 W
80 W
This is a table which
represents the times
it takes the earth to
revolve on its axis.
24 hours = 360 degrees
1 hour = 15 degrees
4 minutes = 1 degree
1 minute = 15 minutes of latitude
1 second = 15 seconds of latitude.
60 W
North Pole
Remember this is how
Latitude lines would appear
as viewed from above the
Earth in an Azimuthal
Projection. Now let’s combine
them with Longitude lines.
90
N
180
120 W
120 E
90 E
Prime Meridian O
North Pole
Longitude Lines would 90 W
appear as straight lines, like
spokes of a bicycle wheel, 60 W
when viewed from above
either the north or south
poles.
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150 E
International
Date Line 180
150 W
30 W
O
60 E
30 E
North Pole
180
Longitude &amp; Latitude
9
120 W
90 N North Pole
40 S
60 S
80 S
90
South Pole
80 E
60 E
40 E
20 E
20 W
40 W
20 S
60 W
80 W
O
Prime Meridian O
60 W
20 N
90 E
90 N
60 N
40 N
120 E
Prime Meridian O
90 W
80 N
150 E
International
Date Line 180
150 W
30 W
60 E
30 E
O
In a Projection of the Earth
we can also combine both
lines of Longitude and Latitude
to identify any point on by its
Absolute Location
CSI10
Latitude &amp; Longitude: Migration Practice
10
Use the political map of Africa in the Atlas on page 90.
Find the African country’s name find the latitude &amp; longitude
intersection within its borders.
Country
Latitude (N or S) Longitude (E or W)
1) Ethiopia
______________ ________________
2) Somalia
______________ ________________
3) Kenya
______________ ________________
4) Uganda
______________ ________________
5) Democratic Republic
of the Congo
______________ ________________
6) Chad
______________ ________________
7) Nigeria
______________
________________
8) Ghana
______________
________________
9) Mali
______________
________________
10) Algeria
______________
________________
11) Libya
______________
________________
12) Egypt
______________
________________
Latitude &amp; Longitude: Practice
Use the political map of Africa in the Atlas on page 90. Find the
African country’s name find the latitude &amp; longitude intersection
within its borders.
Country
Latitude (N or S) Longitude (E or W)
1) Zimbabwe
______________ ________________
2) Ethiopia
______________ ________________
3) Mauritania
______________ ________________
4) Namibia
______________ ________________
5) Mali
______________ ________________
6) Guinea
______________ ________________
7) Angola
______________
________________
8) Zambia
______________
________________
9) Nigeria
______________
________________
10) Somalia
______________
________________
11) Kenya
______________
________________
12) South Africa
______________
________________
Latitude &amp; Longitude: Practice B Quiz
Use the political map of Africa in the Atlas on page 90. Find the
African country’s name find the latitude &amp; longitude intersection
within its borders.
Country
Latitude (N or S) Longitude (E or W)
1) Zimbabwe
______________ ________________
2) _____________________
10 N,
40 E
3) Mauritania
______________ ________________
4) Namibia
______________ ________________
5) _____________________
20 N,
0
6) Guinea
______________ ________________
7) Angola
______________
________________
8) Zambia
______________
________________
9) Niger
______________
________________
10) Gabon
______________
________________
11) ___________________
0 , 40 E
12) South Africa
______________
________________
CSI10
Latitude &amp; Longitude: Practice #2 Quiz
Use the political map of Asia in the Atlas on page 96. Find the Body of Water or the
Asian country’s name find or the latitude &amp; longitude intersection listed below.
Latitude (N or S) Longitude (E or W)
1) 20 N, 50 E
2) 0 , 100 E
3) 20 N, 100 E
4) 20 N, 80 E
5) 30 N , 60 E
6) 40 N, 60 E
7) 50 N, 70 E
8) 60 N, 140 E
9) 50 N, 100 E
10) 40 N, 90 E
11) 20 N 60 E
12) 60 N, 180 E
13) 70 N, 40 E
14) 20 N, 140 E
15) 0 , 80 E
Country or Body of Water
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Latitude &amp; Longitude: Test
#3
Use the physical feature map of Africa in the Atlas on page 91 to identify the name the
physical feature or the body of water in which these intersections occur, or the
Latitude and Longitude of the intersection.
Latitude (N or S) Longitude (E or W)
1) _____, _______
2) 0 , 10 W
3) ______ , ______
4) 10 N , 50 E
5) 40 N , 10 E
6) 0 ,
0
7) 20 N, 20 E
8) _____ , ______
9) 0 , 20 E
10) 0 , 50 E
11) _____,_______
Physical Feature or Body of Water
_Muzambique Channel _________
____________________________
_JOS Plateau______________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
___________________________
___Drakensberg (Mts.)____________
___________________________
___________________________
__Ruwenzori Mts.______________
11
CSI09
Latitude &amp; Longitude: Test
#4
Use the physical feature map of Asia in the Atlas on page 97 to identify the name the
physical feature or the body of water in which these intersections occur, or the
Latitude and Longitude of the intersection.
Latitude (N or S) Longitude (E or W)
1) _____, _______
2) 60 N , 150 E
3) ______ , ______
4) 60 N , 60 E
5) 40 N , 50 E
6) 40 N, 110 E
7) 30 N, 70 E
8) _____ , ______
9) 0 , 100 E
10) 30 N, 80 E
11) 10 N, 150 E
12) 20 N, 40 E
13) 60 N, 80 E
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Physical Feature or Body of Water
_Tarim Basin___________
____________________________
The Gulf of Thailand______________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
___________________________
______Luzon Strait_____________
___________________________
___________________________
_________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Performance Assessment
• Create a tri-fold travel brochure and
present it to the class. Your project must
include the natural characteristics that
define the region known as the Middle
East (either past or present), relative and
absolute location, climate. Culture.
Ecosystems, and technology.
Final Performance Assessment
Physical Features
of Mesopotamia Landforms,
Bodies of Water, Plant and Animal
life on back.
12
Geography
Four Geographic
Regions
Climate
Including:
Average Temperatures
and Average Rainfall
of Mesopotamia
on back
Inventions and
Innovations
of Mesopotamia
on back
Map
of
Mesopotamia
Picture
of
Interest
Title of Travel
Agency
Slogan
Emblem
Price
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Travel Brochure Research Topics
Textbook
Topics Ancient Mesopotamia Encyclopedia
p. 70
p. 69
p. 69
p. 62 &amp; 70
p. 61
------p.61
pp. 61 &amp; 66
Assyria
Babylon
King Hammurabi
Maps of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Seven Wonders
Sumer
Inventions/Innovations
-----------
The Modern World
Modern Iraq (map)
Climate/Rainfall/Temp.
pp. 784-787
pp. 9-12
pp. 33-4
p. 346
pp. 345-6
pp. 253-6
pp. 778-9
p. 327
pp. 324-9
The Five Powerful Ideas of Social Studies
1)Commonality &amp; Diversity
2)Conflict &amp; Cooperation
3) Continuity &amp; Change
4) Individualism &amp; Interdependence
5) Interaction Within Different Environments
Multiple Choice Questions
1) ___ The characteristics of temperature, weather, physical
(natural) features, and human features refer to
a) climate b) culture c) place d) traditions.
2) ___ A part of the earth characterized by distinctive climate,
animals, plant life, or peoples. a) location b) region
c) place d) human feature
3)___ The usual meteorological (weather) conditions including
average temperature, precipitation, and winds of a region
is a) climate b) culture c) place d) location
4) ___ A human society’s traditions, behavior patterns, art,
knowledge, and religious beliefs.
a) climate b) culture c) place d) location
5) ___ the subject of the map a) map key b) map legion
c ) map compass rose d) map title.
6) ___ Maps of Land forms &amp; bodies of water are called
a) political maps b) physical maps c) historical map
d) polar maps.
7) ___ The legend that explains what the symbols on a map stand
for a) map key b) map grid c) inset map
d) map pictures.
8) ___ Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest are
know as the a) cardinal directions b) intermediate
directions c) usual directions d) logical directions
9) ____ Where lines of latitude and longitude cross to give you
an exact global address. a) physical location
b) absolute location c) relative location
d) location of relatives.
10)___ A map projection represents all the longitudes as
parallels. The correct directions are shown, but it distorts
sizes of places especially at the poles.
a) a conformal projection b) an equal-area projection
c) an equidistance projection d) a polar projection.
Multiple Choice Questions
1) ___ A portion of space on a map or globe. An area with
boundaries. a) physical feature b) human feature c) place
2) ___ The characteristics of temperature, weather, physical
(natural) features, and human features refer to
a) climate b) culture c) place d) traditions.
3) ___ A site where something or somebody is. A tract of land
that has been surveyed and marked off. a) location
b) physical feature c) Human feature d) place
4) ___ A part of the earth characterized by distinctive climate,
animals, plant life, or peoples. a) location b) region
c) place d) human feature
5) ___ The usual meteorological conditions including average
temperature, precipitation, and winds of a region is
a) climate b) culture c) place d) location
6) ___ A human society’s traditions, behavior patterns, art,
knowledge, and religious beliefs.
a) climate b) culture c) place d) location
7) ___ the subject of the map a) map key b) map legion
c ) map compass rose d) map title.
8) ___ Maps of Land forms &amp; bodies of water are called
a) political maps b) physical maps c) historical map
d) polar maps.
9) ___ The legend that explains what the symbols on a map stand
for a) map key b) map grid c) inset map
d) map pictures.
10)___ A small map within a larger map a) physical map
b) political map c) Inset map d) reset map.
11) ___ Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest are
know as the a) cardinal directions b) intermediate
directions c) usual directions d) logical directions
12) ____ Where lines of latitude and longitude cross to give you
an exact global address. a) physical location
b) absolute location c) relative location
d) location of relatives.
13)___ An map projection that divides the hemisphere into equal
areas. The regions’ relationship are correct, but shapes
are distorted is know as a) a conformal projection
b) an equal-area projection c) a mercator projection
d) a polar projection.
14)___ A map projection represents all the longitudes as
parallels. The correct directions are shown, but it distorts
sizes of places especially at the poles.
a) a conformal projection b) an equal-area projection
c) a mercury projection d) a polar projection.
15)___ An Equidistance projection shows accurate distances
from a central point. This is an example of
a) a conformal projection b) an equal-area projection
c) a mercury projection d) a polar projection.
Bonus Questions (one point each)
1. ___ What is 90 0 North is also known as?
a) South Pole b) North Pole c) Equator d) Prime Meridian.
2. ___ What is 0 0 longitude also known as?
a) South Pole b) North Pole c) Equator d) Prime Meridian.
3. ___ What is another name for the lines of latitude?
a) meridians b) parallels c) longitude d) equator.
4. ___ The line that separates the northern and southern
hemisphere?
a) South Pole b) North Pole c) Equator d) Prime Meridian.
5. ___ What is another name for the lines of longitude?
a) meridians b) parallels c) longitude d) equator.
6. ___ What is 90 0 South also known as?
a) South Pole b) North Pole c) Equator d) Prime Meridian.
7. ___ What is 0 0 latitude also known as?
a) South Pole b) North Pole c) Equator d) Prime Meridian.
8. ___ An exact location on the earth using latitude &amp; longitude?
a) relative location b) absolute location c) earth address
d) global spotting.
CSI07
Label the following:
Equator, International Date Line, South Pole,
Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of Cancer,
Prime Meridian, and North Pole.
CSI07
The Middle East
Climate: In contrast to the comfortable areas bordering the
Mediterranean and Arabian Seas the inland regions are desert
and almost uninhabitable. This same climate extends from the
Arabian peninsula into northern Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Iran, and
further to the East Afghanistan.
Rainfall: five to ten inches per year. Usually in the form of a
downpour for just a very short period in winter.
Temperatures: Average 130 degrees during a summer day but
as low as 40 degrees at night.
Agriculture: With irrigation wheat, barley, olives, figs, nuts, and
grapes can be cultivated in the steppe regions. Sheep, goats,
donkeys, and camels can be raised even in the desert regions.
Natural Resources: (Scattered throughout the region)
North Africa- Iron Ore &amp; Phosphates
Israel- Salt
Turkey- chromium and molybdenum
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Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran- Oil
Black Sea
Asia
Taurus
Mountains
Mediterranean
Sea
* Ur Persian Gulf
Syrian Desert
Africa
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Geographical Regions of Iraq
Black Sea
Asia
Taurus
Mountains
Mediterranean
Sea
Lower Plain
Desert
Africa
Persian Gulf
Syrian Desert
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Black Sea
Turkey
Lebanon
Mediterranean
Sea
Israel
Iran
Syria
Iraq
Persian Gulf
Jordan
Saudi Arabia
Egypt
CSI07
Iraq – Ancient Land of Mesopotamia
Four Geographic Regions:
1) Mountains in Northeast and Eastern sections. This area has
good pastures and a few fertile plateaus.
2) Central Desert Area doted with few oasises.
3) Upper Plains – dry grassland savannah
4) Lower plains -Irrigated valley between the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers.
Iran – Once known as Persia
Geography: High plateau much of it desert
Climate: dry continental
Natural Resources: coal, iron, copper, lead, borax, manganese,
nickel, cobalt, and oil.
Agriculture: tobacco, cotton, corn, rice all grown on small farms.
CSI07
___ Bowl-shaped area of land surrounded by higher land a) bay
b) basin c) bluff d) delta
2. ___ body of water that is part of a sea or ocean and is partly
enclosed by land a) bay b) basin c) bluff d) delta
3. ___ triangle-shaped area of land at the mouth of a river a) bay
b) basin c) bluff d) delta
4. ___ high, steep face of rock and earth a) bay b) basin c) bluff
d) delta
5. ___ deep, narrow valley with steep sides a) cape b) canyon
c) cataract d) cliff.
6. ___ a point of land that extends into water a) cape b) canyon
c) cataract d) cliff.
7. ___ a large waterfall a) cape b) canyon c) cataract d) cliff.
8. ___ dry land with few plants a) delta b) dune c) coast d) desert
9. ___ deep, narrow part of sea or ocean, between high, steep banks
a) fjord b) glacier c) gulf d) hill
10. ___ large ice mass that moves slowly down a mountain or across
land. a) fjord b) glacier c) gulf d) hill
Geography Vocabulary
Test
1.
11. ___ flat land that is near the edges of a river and is formed by the silt
deposited by floods. a) oasis b) floodplains c) isthmus
d) mouth of river.
12. ___ place where a river empties into another body of water. a) oasis
b) floodplains c) isthmus d) mouth of river.
13. ___ narrow strip of land connecting two larger areas of land. a) oasis
b) floodplains c) isthmus d) strait.
14. ___ area of water and fertile land with desert on all sides. a) oasis
b) floodplains c) isthmus d) mouth of river.
15. ___ land that is almost completely surrounded by water a) plateau
b) savanna c) source of river d) peninsula
16. ___ large area of grassland containing scattered trees. a) plateau
b) savanna c) source of river d) peninsula.
17. ___ place where a river or stream begins a) mouth of river
b) savanna c) source of river d) peninsula
18. ___ an area of high, flat land with steep sides. a) plateau
b) savanna c) source of river d) peninsula.
19. ___ narrow channel of water connecting two larger bodies of water
a) strait b) isthmus c) swamp d) tributary
A. The area along which rivers form waterfalls or
rapids as the rivers drop to lower land.
20. ___ foothills B. A ridge of sand, rock, or coral that lies at or near
21. ___ timberline
the surface of a sea or ocean.
22. ___ tributary C. The area in the mountains above which no trees
will grow.
23. ___ reef
D. The land with water on all sides
24. ___ island
E. A stream or river that empties into a larger river.
25. ___ fall line
F. The hilly area at the base of a mountain.
26. ___ valley
G. The body of water that is partly enclosed by land
27. ___ gulf
but is larger than a bay.
28. ___ mountain
H. The low land between hill or mountains.
range
29. ___ sea level I. The level that is even with the surface of an ocean
or sea.
30. ___ marsh
J. A row of mountains.
31. ___ mountain
K. Lowland with moist soil and tall grasses.
32. ___ ocean
L. A large stream of water that flows across the land.
33. ___ river
M. The body of salt water, larger than a sea.
N. The highest kind of land.
MATCHING
EXTRA CREDIT
Geography Term Test
• DRAW &amp; LABEL THESE TERMS:
( 1 point per correct drawing)
1) Isthmus
2) Strait
3) Tributary
4)Timberline
5) Fall line
What You need to Know
Geography Knowledge Test
1) Items on each Map (title, key/legend, scale, &amp; compass rose)
2) Usual meteorological conditions
3) Characteristics of Place &amp; Region
4)The three characteristics of a region’s climate
5) The four characteristics of a human society’s culture
6) Cardinal &amp; Intermediate directions
7) Absolute location (intersection of Latitude &amp; Longitude
8) Latitude = parallels = East-West lines (Equator 0o)
9) Longitude = meridians = North-South lines (Prime Meridian 0o)
10) Map Projections &amp; How they look
a) Mercator Both poles stretched into lines, but Longitude lines still curved
b) Robinson both Latitude &amp; Longitude lines appear parallel.
c) Azimuthal Latitude lines appear as concentric circles &amp; Longitude as bike
spokes.
11) North Pole 90o N
&amp; Tropic of Cancer 23o 30” N
12) South Pole 90o S
&amp; Tropic of Capricorn 23o 30” S
Longitude &amp; Latitude
N
W
E
S
Northern
Hemisphere
Western
Hemisphere
Southern
Hemisphere
By C. Stephen Ingraham
CSI07
Eastern
Hemisphere
Latitude lines are measured in
90 degrees from the equator
to the North or South Pole.
Each degree can be
further
Divided by 60 into
60
minutes.
Each minute of
40 N
latitude can
20 N
be divided even
further into Equator O
60 seconds.
20 S
Latitude to distance
Conversion chart
Lines of
Latitude
90 N
North pole
80 N
N
40 S
60 S
1 degree = 60 nautical miles
1 minute = 1 nautical mile
80 S
90 S
South Pole
CSI07
Lines of Longitude
divide the Earth into 360
degrees, which are
further divided by 60
into minutes, which can
be divided even further
by 60 into seconds.
Because the Earth turns
once everyday on its 120 W
axis (360 degrees), any
point on its surface
passes under the sun 90 W
each 24 hour period.
Longitude Lines
180
150 E
International
Date Line 180
150 W
120 E
Prime Meridian O
90 E
60 W
30 W
CSI07
60 E
30 E
O
North Pole
Longitude Lines
South Pole
80 E
60 E
40 E
20 E
Prime Meridian O
20 W
40 W
60 W
North Pole
80 W
Lines of Longitude divide
the Earth into 360
degrees, which are
further divided by 60 into
minutes, which can be
divided even further by 60
into seconds.
Because the Earth turns
once everyday on its axis
(360 degrees), any point
on its surface passes
under the sun each 24
hour period.
CSIo7
LONGITUDE LINES
180
120 W
90 W
60 W
CSI09
150 E
International
Date Line 180
150 W
120 E
90 E
Prime Meridian O
Longitude Lines would
appear as straight lines,
like spokes of a bicycle
wheel, when viewed
from above either the
north or south poles.
Viewing the Earth in this
manner is called a
Azimuthal projection.
30 W
O
60 E
30 E
North Pole
Lines of Latitude
Remember this is how
Latitude lines would
appear as viewed from
above the Earth.
Now let’s combine them
with Longitude line.
CSI07
90 N
North Pole
Compare Maps with Different Projections
CSI08
South Pole
80 E
60 E
40 E
20 E
Prime Meridian O
20 W
40 W
60 W
80 W
1. Every map is a projection of the Earth which attempts to
represent a round earth on a flat map. Each representation
has some distortions.
2. An equal-area projection divides the hemisphere into equal
areas. The regions’ relationship are correct, but shapes are
distorted. North Pole
3. A Conformal projection represents all the longitudes as
parallels. The correct directions are shown, but it distorts
sizes of places especially at the poles. (Mercator Projection)
Compare Maps with Different Projections
CSI08
4. Robinson Projections are a combination of both Equal-area &amp;
Conformal projections.
80 E
60 E
40 E
120 W
20 E
Prime Meridian O
20 W
40 W
60 W
80 W
150 W
90 W
60 W
South Pole
30 W
Prime Meridian O International
Date Line 180
180
North Pole
O
150 E
120 E
90 E
60 E
30 E
North
Pole
5. An Equidistance projection shows accurate distances from a
central point. A polar projection is one example. Longitude
is represented like spokes of a wheel, but shapes and
distances are distorted beyond the equator.
E
o
90
E
E
80
60
40
o
70
E
E
o
50
E
E
o
30
10
20
0
o
E
E
W
o
o
o
10
W
20 W
40
o
o
30
W
W
60
o
o
50
W
W
80
o
o
70
W
W
90
o
90
o
N
80o N
70o N
60 o N
50o N
40o N
30 o N
20 o N
10
0o
o
N
10o S
20 o S
30 o S
40 o S
o
CSI07
50 S
60 o S
70 o S
80 o S
90 o S
Latitude &amp; Longitude Lines
180
150 E
International
Date Line 180
150 W
120 W
90 W
120 E
90 N
Prime Meridian O
In an Azimuthal
Projection of the
Earth we can also
combine both lines
of Longitude and
Latitude to identify
any point on by its
Absolute Location
60 W
30 W
90 E
60 E
30 E
O
CSI09
North Pole
Latitude to distance
Conversion chart
1 degree = 60 nautical miles
Lines of Latitude
1 minute = 1 nautical mile
In a Polar Projection the
latitude lines appear as
concentric circles rather
than the straight lines we
are used to. That is because
we can see only the
Northern hemisphere (if the
North Pole is in the middle)
or Southern hemisphere (if
the South Pole is in the
middle.
90 N
CSI09
North Pole
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