OCB -BAT 2072

30h BAT , 2072
Achala Dahal
Session outline
OCB Concepts
 Working with checklists
 Measures of OCB
 Dimensions of OCB
 Factors that promote OCB
 Potential pitfall
 Findings
 Conclusion
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors are a
 special type of work behavior that are
defined as individual behaviors that are
beneficial to the organization and
 are discretionary(optional),
 not directly or explicitly recognized by the
formal reward system (Organ).
An organization's ability to elicit employee behavior
goes above and beyond the call of duty
 are intended to benefit the organization and/or
its members
 can be a key assets and
 one that is difficult for competitors to imitate.
OCB thus, can be defined as the superior efforts
that employees make on behalf of their
These behaviors are primarily matter of
personnel choice as omission is not considered
as punishable in the organizations.
These are extra role employees show beyond
their regular job description and
organization rules and regulation.
30th BAT
Why it is name OCB??
The whole organization is viewed as a little city
and employees as a citizen.
 As every citizens want their city to be clean,
followed by rules and regulation to build it as
a role model. Likely employees show behavior
as a citizen of an organization to take the
organization to extra miles.
Notion of Good Citizen
Employee who religiously obeys all rules and
regulations, even when no one is watching, is
regarded as a “Good Citizen.”
 S/he help coworkers; protect the organization’s
interests; make constructive suggestions;
develop oneself as an asset to the
organization and spread goodwill and boost
Three types of Employees
Three types of Employees
Individual Exercise
Working with
understanding and
OCB Checklists
Measures of OCB
Helps other employees with their work when they have
been absent.
Exhibits punctuality in arriving at work on time in the
morning and after lunch and other breaks.
Volunteers to do things not formally required by the
Takes the initiatives to orient new employees to the
department even though it is not part of their job
Exhibits attendance at work beyond the
 Helps others when their work load increases.
 Coasts towards the end of the day.
 Gives advance notice if unable to come to
 Makes innovative suggestions to improve the
overall quality of the department.
Does not take extra breaks.
 Willingly attends functions not required
by the organisation but that helps its
overall image.
 Does not spend a great deal of time in
idle conversation.
Five dimension of OCB
Altruism (निस्वार्थ)
It is the discretionary behaviors that have the
effect of helping a specific work colleague with
an organizationally relevant task or problem.
 Behavior that is directly and intentionally aimed
at helping a specific person in face-to-face
situations (e.g. orienting new people, assisting
someone with heavy workload)
Conscientiousness (स्वबििेक)
It consists of behaviors where employees
accept and adhere to the rules,
regulations, and procedures of the
 Does not take extra breaks. Obey
company rules and regulations even when
no one
is watching.
Civic virtue
It is characterized by behaviors that indicate the
employee’s deep concerns and active interest in
the life of the organization.
 Interest in or commitment to the organization as a
 Shown by a willingness to participate actively in
its governance (e.g., attend meetings, engage in
policy debates, express one’s opinion about what
strategy the organization ought to follow).
It has been defined as discretionary behaviors
that aim at preventing work-related conflicts
with others.
 Take steps to try to prevent problems with
other workers. Does not abuse the rights of
It has been defined as a willingness on
the part of the employee that signifies the
employee’s tolerance of less-than-ideal
organizational circumstances without
complaining and blowing problems out of
Factors that promote employee
Job satisfaction: Happy workers are good
organizational citizens.
Interesting work and job involvement: when
employees are given interesting work
assignments and jobs in which they can really
immerse themselves, they are more likely to go
beyond the call of duty.
Satisfaction leads engagement
3. Organizational support: Employees who feels
that their organizations really care about them
are more likely to support the organization with
higher level of citizenship.
4. Trust, organizational justice, and psychological
contract fulfillment: citizenship is likely to occur
when employers are trustworthy, fair and live
up to the commitments they have made to their
Team Work Matters
5. Transformational and supportive leadership:
Employees are willing to go the extra mile
when they work for inspirational and supportive
6. Employee characteristics: Employees who are
conscientious, optimistic, extroverted,
empathetic, and team-oriented may be more
willing to engage in certain types of citizenship
OCB: Potential Pitfalls
Discrimination: - Gendered expectations – research has
shown that men are rewarded for OCB more than women
Organizational Justice: - If some supervisors reward OCB
more than others, perceived
unfairness may increase among certain clusters of
Habituation: - If OCB is rewarded regularly, you may
find that OCB levels will rise across the organization over
time. citizenship pressure- may impact negatively on
employee stress levels.
Findings and research
One Plank at a Time: Building the Bridge from
OCBs to Performance (2011)
• Topic: Job Performance, Citizenship Behavior
Publication: Journal of Applied Psychology
Article: A Moderated Mediation Model of the
Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship
Behaviors and Job Performance
Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Public
and Private sector and Its Impact on Job
“A Comparative Study in Indian
Is it Fair to Include “Citizenship” in Performance
Appraisal ?
• Topic: Citizenship Behavior, Performance Appraisal
Publication: Journal of Business and Psychology (DEC
Article: Organizational citizenship behavior in
performance evaluations: Distributive justice or injustice
Help the Organization and…Help Yourself!!!
Topic: Citizenship Behavior, Interviewing, Selection
Publication: Journal of Applied Psychology
Article: Effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on
selection decisions in employment interviews. (March 2011)
Organizational Citizenship: more than a matter of
“scratching backs
Topic: Citizenship Behavior, Fairness
Publication: Journal of Applied Psychology
Article: Paying you back or paying me forward: Understanding
rewarded and unrewarded organizational citizenship behavior
OCBs are relevant in virtually any job,
regardless of the particular nature of its tasks
as they promote effectiveness of work units
and organizations
 become even more vital during organizational
crises, when beneficial suggestions, deep
employee involvement, and a positive “public
face” are critical.
It’s time for Feedback
Achala Dahal
Nepal Administrative Staff College
Jawalakhel, Lalitpur
Email: [email protected]