Random-access memory is computer data storage. A random-access device which stores data to be
accessed directly in any random order. The more RAM that you have the more things that you can
do when on the computer.
The use of it in the computer is that it is where all of the unsaved data is stored until you save it or
shut the computer down. The connection to the computer and the Ram is in the motherboard
The CPU (central processing unit) does all of the computing processing that you ask it to. It’s the
central core that all of the commands goes though then is taken to the proper location to have an
action taken.
There are many different types of CPU’s available but we all call them processors.
A multi-core processor is a one computer with two or more central processing units in it, this makes
the computer do actions faster. The CPU’s gigahertz is the speed that the computer goes by.
CPU’s can cost from £9 to over a £100 depending on the band and how powerful it is.
The different brands are:
Power Supple Unit (P.S.U) is the component that supplies the power to the other component in the
computer. Some power supplies can have a manual selector for input voltage, while others
automatically adapt to the supply voltage. The desktop computer power supply changes alternating
current from a wall socket to low-voltage direct current.
The Power Supple Unit is connected to the computer through the PC Main or is also called P1; it
connects to the motherboard and powers it. 12V only power connector: This is a 16-pin Molex
connector supplying the motherboard with six 12V lines. 12V only System monitoring also called
P10: This is an equivalent connector carrying a supply to the PSU fan and sense returns. ATX12V 4pin power connector also called the P4 power connector: A second connector that goes to the
motherboard to supply dedicated power for the processor. 4-pin Peripheral power connectors:
These are the other, smaller connectors that go to the various disk drives of the computer. 4-pin
Molex Ltd power connectors usually called Mini-connector or mini-Molex: this is the smallest of the
connectors that goes supplies a 3 ½ inch floppy drive with power. Auxiliary power connectors: There
are several types of auxiliary connectors designed to provide additional power if it is needed.
Serial ATA power connectors: A 15-pin connector for
6+2 pin
An IEC 60320 C14 connector
The power draw on a PSU is limited by all of the supply rails come through one transformer and any
of its primary side circuitry, like switching components. The total power for a personal computer
may range from 250 watts to more than 1000 watts for a high-performance computer with multiple
graphics cards. Personal computers rarely require more than 300–500 watts.
A graphics processing unit is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter
memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display.
GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game
consoles. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics, and their highly
parallel structure makes them more effective than general-purpose CPUs for algorithms where
processing of large blocks of data is done in parallel. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present
on a video card, or it can be on the motherboard or on the CPU die.
Graphics Card
A graphics card is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display. Most
graphics cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics,
MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors.
Connects to Motherboard via one of:
PCI Express
Display via one of:
VGA connector
Digital Visual Interface
Composite video
Component video
Display Port
A motherboard is the main circuit board found in computers. It holds many of the crucial electronic
components of the system, like the central processing unit and memory, and provides connectors
for other peripherals. A motherboard provides the electrical connections which the other
components of the system communicate. A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor, main
memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such
as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices may be attached
to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables, in modern computers it is increasingly common to
integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself. An important component of a
motherboard is the microprocessor's supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces
between the CPU and the various buses and external components.
A peripheral is a device that is connected to the computer, but not part of it. It expands the
computers capabilities but does not form part of the core computer architecture. It is often, but not
always, partially or completely dependent on the computer.
There are three different types of peripherals:
Examples of peripherals are mouse or keyboard that connects to and works with the computer in
some way, expansion cards, graphics cards, image scanners, tape drives, microphones, loudspeakers,
webcams, and digital cameras.
Hard Drive
A hard disk drive is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using
rotating disks coated with magnetic material. An HDD retains data even when powered off. Data is
read in a Random-Access manner.
It is used to permanently store data, as opposed to RAM, which is erased whenever the computer is
restarted, which is why the term mass storage device is sometimes used to refer to hard drives.
The hard drive is connected to the computer using a hard drive controller which acts as an interface
between the processor and the hard drive. You can use an IDE or a starter lead. The starter lead is
much faster than the IDE lead.
Depending how good the hard drive means that it can cost a lot of money, it can cost from £30 to
over a £100.
The different brands are:
Western Digital
The primary characteristics of an HDD are its capacity and performance. Capacity is specified in unit
prefixes corresponding to powers of 1000. Some of a HDD’s capacity is unavailable to the user of the
computer as it is used by the File systems and the computer operating system.
Storage is like the Hard Drive, the memory stick or a memory card. These are places that store data.
A hard disk drive is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using
rotating disks coated with magnetic material.
Memory sticks or USB flash drives are a data storage device that includes flash memory with an
integrated Universal Serial Bus interface. USB flash drives are removable and re writable, and are
much smaller than an optical disc.
A memory card is a flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information. They are
used in many electronic devices, like digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, and lots
more. They are small, re-recoverable, and able to retain data without power.
All of these have their disadvantages and advantages one of them being size. The hard drive isn't
easy to carry around with you, were the others are easy to take with you and if you pay the right
price you can get them with a lot of storage but in average they have little storage space that can be
used, were the Hard drive can hold a lot more space