Language Assessment The New English Language Curriculum can be found on the following website (both for primary and for secondary education): http://ttkb.meb.gov.tr/www/ogretim-programlari/icerik/72 Taken from «İngilizce Dersi Öğretim Programları» • In designing the new English language teaching program, the principles and descriptors of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) were closely followed. • The CEFR particularly stresses the need for students to put their learning into real-life practice in order to support fluency, proficiency and language retention (CoE, 2001); accordingly, the new curricular model emphasizes language use in an authentic communicative environment. As no single language teaching methodology was seen as flexible enough to meet the needs of learners at various stages and to address a wide range of learning styles, an eclectic mix of instructional techniques has been adopted, drawing on an action-oriented approach in order to allow learners to experience English as a means of communication, rather than focusing on the language as a topic of study. Therefore, use of English is emphasized in classroom interactions of all types, supporting learners in becoming language users, rather than students of the language, as they work toward communicative competence (CoE, 2001). • As the CEFR considers language learning to be a lifelong undertaking, developing a positive attitude toward English from the earliest stages is essential; therefore, the new curriculum strives to foster an enjoyable and motivating learning environment where young learners/users of English feel comfortable and supported throughout the learning process. Authentic materials, drama and role play, and hands-on activities are implemented to stress the communicative nature of English. At the 2nd and 3rd grade levels, speaking and listening are emphasized; while reading and writing are incorporated in higher grades as students become more advanced. • Throughout each stage, developmentally appropriate learning tasks provide a continued focus on building the learner autonomy and problem-solving skills that are the basis for communicative competence. Assessment in the new curriculum • As suggested by the CEFR, self-assessment is emphasized, as learners/users are encouraged to monitor their own progress and achievement in the development of communicative competence (CoE, 2001). Each unit will include a list of achievements to be met by the students; this will be converted to selfassessment checklists which ask learners/users to assess their own learning from an action-based perspective. • In other words, children will be prompted to answer questions such as “What did you learn?”, “How much do you think you learned?” and “What do you think you can do in real life, based on what you learned in class?” • Students will also keep a dossier of their language learning achievement which is modeled on the European Language Portfolio (CoE, 2001; Mirici, 2008); in this manner, they will be able to track their progress independently of quantitative scoring and grades. In addition to self-assessment, formal evaluation will be carried out through the application of written and oral exams, quizzes, homework assignments and projects in order to provide an objective record of students’ success. Assessment Types for all stages Project and portfolio evaluation (Student-teacher cooperation) Self-and peer evaluation Teacher observation and evaluation Pen and paper tests (Including listening and speaking skills) Levels [CEFR*] (Hours / Week) Grades (Age) Skill focus 2 (6-6.5) Listening and Speaking 3 (7-7.5) Listening and Speaking (Very Limited Reading and Writing°) 4 (8-8.5) Listening and Speaking (Very Limited Reading and Writing) 2 [A1] (4) 5 (9-9.5) Listening and Speaking (Very Limited Writing) 6 (10-10.5) Listening and Speaking (Very Limited Writing) 3 [A2] (4) 7 (11-11.5) Primary: Listening and Speaking Secondary: Reading and Writing 8 (12-12.5) Primary: Listening and Speaking Secondary: Reading and Writing 1 [A1] (2) Main activities/ strategies TPR/Arts and crafts/Drama Drama/Role-play Theme-based Using CEFR Descriptors for Testing and Assessment • The new English Curriculum requires that students are placed according to their proficiency levels (CEFR) assessed by teacher-made exams. • E.g. Following item was written in the curriculum to place students according to their levels: • A1 ve A2 seviye kazanımları esas alınarak yapılacak sınavda her seviyede 100 üzeriden 60 alanlar için bir üst seviyenin programı esas alınarak gruplar oluşturulur. Sınava özürsüz girmeyen öğrenciler A1 seviyesi programına devam ederler. (Ortaöğretim Kurumları İngilizce Dersi Öğretim Programı, 2011, p. 12) What is CEFR? • The CEFR is a document which • defines teaching and learning objectives and methods and • provides the necessary tools for assessment of proficiency (Council of Europe) • The CEFR describes foreign language proficiency at six levels: A1 and A2, B1 and B2, C1 and C2. • Language activities are further divided under three main titles to be used for self-assessment purposes: • Understanding (Listening and Reading) • Speaking (Spoken Interaction and Spoken Production) • Writing Understanding CEFR Descriptors • A sample Listening A1 descriptor in the self-assessment grid: "I can recognize familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly." • The content of these descriptors can be broken down into subelements to be used for summative assessment (exams, quizzes, etc.) and/or for continuous assessment (self-assessment, portfolio, projects, performance tasks, etc.). • Let’s see how this descriptor can be broken down: "I can recognize familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly." • Listening A.1.2: • I can understand when people speak about themselves or their families slowly and in simple words. • I can understand numbers, prices and times when I hear an announcement in a shop or a railway station. • In a shop, for example, I can understand how much something costs, if the salesperson makes an effort to help me understand. • I can understand a few words and phrases when they concern myself, my family, school, leisure or my environment, for example, provided the other person speaks slowly and clearly. • I can understand simple calculations using «plus», «minus» and «times». Practicing on a CEFR descriptor • Following is how Reading A2 is defined in the CEFR (English and Turkish versions). I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters. İlanlar, kullanım kılavuzları, mönüler ve zaman çizelgeleri gibi basit günlük metinlerdeki genel bilgileri kavrayabilir ve kısa kişisel mektupları anlayabilirim. • Break it down into sub-descriptors that would be adapted for your learners. • So how can we take these descriptors into consideration while preparing our tests? Let’s see an example for a reading task • These are some of the A2 level Reading learning objectives taken from the New Curriculum, p.188) 1. Uluslararası ortak ifadeler /sözcükler ve sıklıkla tekrar eden ifadeleri/sözcükleri içeren kısa ve basit metinleri anlamlandırır. 2. Şekil, sembol ve işaretlerin anlamlarını bilir. 3.Gerekli bilgiyi bulmak amacıyla göz gezdirerek okur. 4. Basit yazılı metinlerdeki gerekli bilgileri bulur. 5.Kısa, basit yönergeleri uygular. 6.Görsellerden yararlanarak okuduğunu anlamlandırır. 7. Kısa yazılı mesajların anlamını kavrar. 8. Okuduklarına ilişkin soruları cevaplar. 9. Okuduklarında belirtilen hobileri ayırt eder. Reading Assessment Task • The task requires the students match the notices with what they mean. • Instruction is as follows: • Which notice (A-E) says this (1-3)? (adapted from Cambridge ESOL exams, KET) A) 1. You can eat here in the morning! SLOW! Dangerous crossroads B) SWIMMING POOL OPEN AFTERNOONS Adults- €2.50 Children-€1 C) BREAKFAST SERVED 7.00-10.00 2. You should not swim here. 3. You must not drive fast here. D) E) DANGER! DO NOT GO INTO THE WATER POLICE CARS ONLY • Which of these learning objectives does this task assess? A) 1. You can eat here in the morning! B) SWIMMING POOL OPEN AFTERNOONS Adults- €2.50 Children-€1 C) BREAKFAST SERVED 7.00-10.00 2. You should not swim here. 3. You must not drive fast here. D) 7. Kısa yazılı mesajların anlamını kavrar. SLOW! Dangerous crossroads E) DANGER! DO NOT GO INTO THE WATER POLICE CARS ONLY A) 1. You can eat here in the morning! B) SWIMMING POOL OPEN AFTERNOONS Adults- €2.50 Children-€1 C) BREAKFAST SERVED 7.00-10.00 2. You should not swim here. 3. You must not drive fast here. D) 3.Gerekli bilgiyi bulmak amacıyla göz gezdirerek okur. SLOW! Dangerous crossroads E) DANGER! DO NOT GO INTO THE WATER POLICE CARS ONLY Now, let’s see an example for a writing task • These are some of the A2 level Writing learning objectives taken from the New Curriculum, p.188) 1. Yazılarında kendi yaşantısından ve günlük hayattan örnekler verir. 2. Not alır. 3. Liste oluşturur. 4. Kısa diyaloglar yazar. 5. Kısa mesajlar yazar. 6. Formları yönergelerine uygun doldurur…. The writing assessment task • You now live in a new house. Write a short email to a friend about your new house. • Say: • Where your house is • Which room you like best and why • Write in 50-70 words • Which of these learning objectives does this task assess? • You now live in a new house. Write a short email to a friend about your new house. • Say: • Where your house is • Which room you like best and why • Write in 50-70 words 5. Kısa mesajlar yazar. • How can we score this assessment task? • Mainly two scoring rubrics can be used: • Holistic • Analytic A sample Holistic Rubric Mark Criteria 5 4 3 2 1 0 --All three parts of message clearly communicated --Only minor spelling errors or occasional grammatical errors --All three parts of message communicated --Some non-impeding errors in spelling and grammar or some awkwardness of expression --All three parts of message attempted --Expression requires interpretation by the reader and contains impeding errors in spelling and grammar --All three parts of the message are included but the context is incorrect OR --Two parts of message are clearly communicated --Only minor spelling errors or occasional grammar errors --Only two parts of message communicated --Some errors in spelling and grammar --The errors in expression may require patience and interpretation by the reader and impede communication Only one part of the message communicated Some attempt to address the task but response is very unclear Question unattempted, or totally incomprehensive response A Sample Analytic Rubric 5 Task Achievement Grammar Vocabulary *all content points elaborated *meets text type requirements *few inaccuracies that do not hinder/disrupt communication *accurate vocabulary communicating clear ideas *relevant to content *some content points elaborated *most content points mentioned *many inconsistencies in text type requirements *frequent inaccuracies hinder/disrupt communication *limited range of vocabulary *frequently inaccurate vocabulary *no content point elaborated *does not meet text type requirements *mostly inaccurate *mostly inaccurate vocabulary‚ communicating few clear ideas *mostly irrelevant to content 4 3 2 1 CLASSROOM-BASED ASSESSMENT A short survey • Do you believe that every student in a class can improve? • Do you think teachers should share learning objectives with their students? • Do you think assessment can be used as a source of information? • Do you think students should be involved in self/peer assessment? • Do you think feedback to students is important? Do you believe that every student in a class can improve? Culture of Success!! Do you think teachers should share learning objectives with their students? • The key focus of classroom-based language assessment must be to enable students to be continually aware of • where they are now in their learning, • where they can or need to get to, and • how best to get there. • One way to achieve this is to share our learning objectives and assessment criteria with our students. Our new curriculum also wants this! • This means we should give our students the scoring rubrics for writing, portfolio, performance tasks, etc. together with the task. • Dereceli puanlama anahtarı ödevinizin hangi ölçütlere göre değerlendirileceği konusunda sizlere bilgi vermek için hazırlanmıştır. Bu puanlama anahtarınız öğretmeniniz tarafından doldurulacağından üzerinde herhangi bir işaretleme yapmayınız. One way of sharing learning goals Do you think assessment can be used as a source of information? • A mistaken belief: • Assessment must be kept secret • Possible result of this belief: • Ss only wonder what their score is in the exam and • They don’t know their strengths and weaknesses • What can be done? • Use assessment formatively • Use assessment results as sources of information • Provide students with essential feedback • Thus, • Students will identify their problems and recognize their success • Teachers will identify what was taught well and what areas needed modification Do you think students should be involved in self/peer assessment? • Self/Peer assessment can be done in various ways: • in the form of scale in which peers give marks to each other or students assess themselves • reflection in which peers give written/oral feedback to each other or students reflect on their own work An example self-assessment checklist Do you think feedback to students is important? • Feedback after exams? • Feedback after tasks (portfolio, performance, project, etc)? • Individual feedback? • Group feedback? Scenario • Imagine you gave the following writing assessment task to your students: • You have just returned from a week’s holiday staying at the home of your British friend, Sam. • Write a card to your friend, Sam. In your card, you should: • tell Sam about your journey back to your home • say what you enjoyed most about your stay • ask Sam to visit you • Write 35-45 words Response of Student 1 Hi Sam, The journey back home was so boring. I didn’t want to come back to my house. I really love the time with you, but my favourite time was when we went to the lake. The next holidays you have to come to my house. Love, Fernanda Response of Student 2 Dear Sam, I wanted to say that I’m well. I had very nice holidays. This holidays were super. I want to go to you again. I want to see places of interest again. I want to see you too! Please write me how are you. What is the wather in London. I’m waiting to your answer Valeria • Now please give feedback to the sample student responses (Student 1 and Student 2) Effective Feedback Tunstall and Gipps classify feedback as either: evaluative – involving a value judgment or descriptive – describing what the student said or did. Evaluative feedback • involves a judgment by the teacher based on implicit or explicit norms. Examples of evaluative feedback: “That’s a good essay.” “You’ve done well.” Descriptive feedback • is task- and outcome-oriented. • focuses on identified learning outcomes and makes specific reference to the student’s achievement. An example of descriptive feedback: “That’s a good writing sample because you have covered the main points of the story. Now … which points do you think you could expand on?” Typology of Teacher Feedback (Tunstall & Gipps, 1996) 1 Positive feedback 2 Negative feedback Type A Rewarding Type B Approving Type C Specifying attainment Type D Constructing achievement -T. judgment -reward for effort/social skills/attitudes -overall positive personal judgment -general praise -beyond expectations -specific praise of work -representation of success against criteria, not T feeling e.g. Smiley face; announcing to large audience e.g. Use of ticks; general praise like well done, very good, brilliant.. -more ‘T with the Ss’ than ‘T to the Ss’ -dialogue with Ss -allows Ss to explain/ demonstrate the work using their own words Punishing Disapproving Specifying improvement Constructing the way forward -T. judgment -complete disapproval -overall negative judgment for attitude/behavior/work -giving Ss greater responsibility -suggest (not tell) what to do to improve e.g. Removal from a group; destruction of work e.g. Negative words like “I am disappointed, you could do better..” -shows what needed improving in Ss work -focuses on mistakes relating to Ss achievement Evaluative e.g. “This is very well done because you have …..” e.g. “go to the underlined words and correct them….” Descriptive 1 Achievement feedback e.g. “a very good explanation of the terminology: how did you manage this?” e.g. “Are you happy with your essay? Why?” “This is a good idea: are there any other ways of explaining it?” 2 Improvement feedback • Now have a look at the feedback you gave to the students in our scenario. • Are they evaluative or descriptive?