Effects of the Aging Baby Boomers

Effects of the Aging Baby
Dependency Load
• A measure of the portion of the national
population that is dependent – not actively
employed (children, youth, seniors)
Dependency Ratio
• Numerical comparison of the average # of
dependents for every 100 persons of working
age (14-65 yrs)
Life Expectancy
• Average age a person is expected to live
– Calculated differently for males and females
– Indicator of living standards
Pension Fund
• $ from income that people deposit into a group
savings account, often with further contributions
from employers/government and is drawn out
after retirement
Retirement Savings Plan
• Individual savings plan which people save $
for retirement
– Encouraged by a tax break from the government
• Type of travel based on the enjoyment on
Effects of an aging boomer population
Do you feel that the aging baby
boomers will become a burden for
your generation in the future?
Business Plan for Aging Boomers
Fertility and Fecundity
• Refers to reproduction
• A woman is fertile if she has born, or is
bearing, offspring
• The ability to reproduce
• Once a female reaches menarche, she is
Fertility Rates
• The actual number of children had by women
Developed World
• Countries that are industrialized, modern, and
wealthy – often countries in North America,
Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand
Developing World
• Countries that are non-industrialized and
where citizens practice more traditional
Proximate Determinants
• The biological and behavioural factors through
which social, economic, and environmental
variables affect fertility
Replacement Level
• A population term referring to the number of
births required to maintain a stable
1. If the fertility rate is lower than the
replacement level, what will happen to the
2. If the fertility rate is higher that the
replacement level, will the population
increase or decrease?
With specific examples, explain how
fertility rates are changing in the
• Globally, on the decline.
• Developed world’s population is shrinking
– Only US is replacing its population (immigration
and fertility)
• Germany, Italy, Sweden all have shrinking
• Fertility rate is expected to fall from 1.54 to
1.48 births per woman in the next five years
• Only NWT and Nunavut show birthrates above
the replacement level
What are some factors that couples
may want to have in place before
having children?
Why do fewer women breastfeed in
developed societies than in developing
societies? What impact does this have
on fecundity?
• Notion that individuals are expected to be
autonomous (independent)
• Babies expected to sleep in own cribs, play alone,
and breast fed for only a few months
• Maternity leave is short in US (6-8 weeks)
• Infants benefit greatly from breast milk – meets
their nutritional needs, immunizes against
disease, improves digestion and body systems,
reduces risk of allergies, economical
• Breast-feeding has a contraceptive effect on
the woman
• Release of prolactin (pituitary hormone that
regulates production of progesterone) and
inhibits ovulation
Provide examples of government
policies around the world designed to
increase or decrease family size.
• Russia – considering banning abortion and
imposing a childlessness tax to increase
• China – 1979 imposed a one-couple, one-child
policy to reduce population growth
• Quebec – cash bonus to couples for each child
born in an attempt to increase francophone
population - withdrawn
• Canada - Government funded family planning
programs to decrease teen pregnancy
– Sex education
– Public health departments
– Easier access to contraceptive
• Bangladesh – educated and delivered
contraceptive to women
• Family planning programs need to be
delivered carefully – Central and South
America – push for lower fertility created very
high rates of illegal abortions – horrendous
health consequences
How do cultural norms affect
fertility rates?
• Overt (open)
• Covert (implied)
• China – Walking marriages – freedom is
important – couples do not want to live together
– To obtain an apartment, must be married
– Many women not wanting children
– Disassociation from traditional culture
• Hong Kong – Tradition – wanting to give birth
in year of the dragon – divinity and good
fortune – children will be bright, smart and
• Otherwise, Hong Kong has lowest fertility rate
in the world
• Israel – marriages can be dissolved after 10
years of childlessness (seen as tragic) –
government subsidizes fertility treatments –
more fertility clinics per capita