Sumer between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers plain area called Mesopotamia unpredictable floods limited natural resources Ancient Egypt along great Nile River called “Gift of the Nile” cataracts = rapids delta: broad, marshy triangular area with deposits of soil polytheistic: many gods, about 3,000 gods were all powerful and immortal, humans were servants souls of dead went to “land of no return” kings were gods pharaohs: god-kings polytheistic: about 2,000 Ra = sun Iris = ideal mother/wife Orisis = chose afterlife Epic of Gilgamesh epic myth about unsuccessful quest for immortality crude pictographs hieroglyphics (sacred carvings) wrote on dried papyrus city-states: each city and the surrounding land it controlled ziggurats at the center, where priests appealed to gods for well-being warriors had control of armies dynasties: when rules were from one family divided into Upper and Lower Egypt Menes united in 3000 B.C.E. theocracy: ruler is a divine figure pharaohs promoted truth and justices invented wheel, sail, and plow first to use bronze first system of writing: cuneiform arches, number system base 60, geometry creation of pyramids from limestone/granite Mummification (to preserve the dead) written numbers medicine and surgery priests/kings were highest, then merchants, workers, slaves lowest women had some rights, not education royal families were highest, then government officials, priest and commanders below them were the merchants/artisans, and the unskilled laborers women equal to men When comparing and contrasting, consider using a few of these categories to help organize your essay and provide a solid comparison. Political Economic Social Cultural Intellectual Religious Geographic Topic sentence – introduces the category or point; could be directly from introduction paragraph Clincher sentence – sums up what you just said and is the main point to take away from that paragraph Each item listed is 1 point for a total of 18 points. 17 more points will come from my being able to read your essay, emailing me a copy if it is typed, signing the honor code somewhere on your essay, etc. Essays will typically be worth 55 points, this first one will only be 35 points.