Short Story Notes

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It’s Time for…
Here it comes…
Literary Terms Notes
Oh…the suspense…
Get Happy!
Short Story
• Not necessarily a “story that is short”
• A short story by definition is a story that
has one major conflict revolving around
one major character.
• Types:
• Any noun that takes
place in the action of
a literary work
Round Character
• Has many different character
traits…could theoretically be a real
Wow…I didn’t
know that…
Flat Character
• Has only one definable character trait.
• Is completely one dimensional!
Even more flat than THIS
Dynamic Character
• A mini quiz: What was the nickname of
Batman and Robin?
The Dynamic Duo!
A dynamic character is one that changes
throughout the course of the plot
(thoughts, feelings, etc.)
Static Character
• Hint: Think static cling…
• This type of character sticks to his/her
ideas throughout the plot. In other
words, the character does not change.
He/she stays the same during the
course of action.
• This is your main character.
• Usually the good guy.
For example…
• Character who opposes the protagonist.
• Usually the bad guy
Who could an antagonist for
our protagonist be?
Point of View
• The side from which the story is told
• There are 3 different types of point of view
• 1st person
• 3rd person omniscient
• 3rd person limited
1st person: told from the side of someone in the
story; only get their thoughts and feelings.
Key word in identifying 1st person is I.
3rd person omniscient: and outside voice that
knows all the characters’ thoughts and feelings
3rd person limited: and outside voice that knows
only one character’s thoughts and feelings
• The time and place of the action.
• Can be general or very specific
• For example…
• Summer afternoon (general);
• Saturday, June 29, 2002 at 7:30 pm in
Erlanger, KY (specific).
Struggle between opposing forces; two types: external and internal
• External conflicts:
character struggles with
something outside the
person v. person
person v. nature
person v. society
person v. supernatural
person v. machine
• Internal Conflicts:
character struggles with
something within self
• person v. self
What type of conflicts do we see here?
Freytag’s Pyramid
The sequence of events in a literary work is
called the plot. It follows Freytag’s Pyramid
and involves characters and central conflict.
Decoding the Freytag
1. Exposition: beginning of work;
introduces characters, setting, and
basic situation
2. Inciting Incident: Thing that starts
the central conflict
3. Rising Action: all events that lead up
to the climax
More Freytag…
4. Climax: the highest point of
conflict/interest. The turning point.
5. Falling Action: all action that leads
away from the climax to the resolution.
6. Resolution: end of central conflict.
7. Denouement: all action that takes place
after the resolution; extra info.
Other Stuff…
• Surprise ending: ending that defies
the expectations of the reader but is
logical and believable.
• Anticlimax: Takes place where the
climax would be. Reader discovers that
the story is not turning out the way
Terms You Need to Know…
• Dialogue: Conversation between characters.
Advances the plot and/or reveals something about
the speaker.
Foreshadowing: use of clues that suggest what is
going to happen in the future of a literary work;
creates suspense.
Motivation: Why a character does what he does.
Symbol: something that stands for something else
Personification: giving non-human things human
characteristics. (Think Disney)
• The general term for a literary technique
that portrays the differences between
appearances and reality.
• There are three different types:
• Verbal
• Dramatic
• Irony of situation
Verbal Irony:
words used to suggest the opposite of
what is meant.
AKA sarcasm
Dramatic Irony:
The audience knows something that the characters
do not know.
Irony of Situation
Event occurs that directly goes against the
expectations of the characters, reader, or audience.
Almost There…
The central idea or message in a literary work; may be directly
stated or implied. It is not a summary!!
The lesson taught by a literary work.
As Yakko, Wacko and Dot
used to say…
Wheel of morality turn, turn, turn…tell
us the lesson that we should learn
That about does it for your Literary Terms
Remember to look over them
everyday…we will use them during each
story, you will see them on a test, and
on your final exam.
Until then…