Presented by: Deanna Smith, Ian Taylor, Caleb Wiles, and Lee M Lester A Whole New Mind Brain has 100 billion cells and one quadrillion connections Left Hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa In almost every task the brain works in conjunction Logic Sequence Literalness Analysis Synthesis Emotional Expression Context The Big Picture LEFT SIDE RIGHT SIDE “A picture is worth a thousand words” Standardized Tests GMAT, SAT, LSAT, PSAT Language Greek 550 B.C. TPRS learning Outsourcing Software Engineers/Computer Programmers India produces 350K engineering grads 48% of GE’s software is developed in India China is producing just as many engineering grads as the US John Henry Gary Kasparvo Produces products Better Faster Cheaper 1. 2. 3. Can someone overseas do it cheaper? Can a computer do it faster? Is what I’m offering in demand in an age of abundance? Design is the combination of both utility and significance. Utility- providing a specific function. Significance- transmitting ideas/emotions that words cannot convey. Utility, today, is widespread, inexpensive, and relatively easy to achieve, which increases the value of significance. “I think designers are the alchemists of the future” – Richard Koshalek, president, Art Center College of Design Three reasons design has become an aptitude for personal fulfillment and professional success ◦ Good design is now more accessible than ever – more people can partake in its pleasures ◦ Design is needed to create differentiation and a way to create new markets. ◦ As more people develop a design sensibility, design can be used for its ultimate purpose: changing the world. “Good design is a renaissance attitude that combines technology, cognitive science, human need, and beauty to produce something that the world didn’t know it was missing.” – Paola Antonelli, curator of architecture and design, Museum of Modern Art In the past, mainly the rich and powerful were able to relish in the significance of design, while others had to settle for just the utility. “Design in its simplest form is the activity of creating solutions. Design is something that everyone does every day.” – Frank Nuovo Now, design is becoming more common. Ex: Our access to hundreds, thousands, or even millions of different fonts. “Aesthetics matter. Attractive things work better.” – Don Norman, author and engineering professor Design has gone beyond just the commercial realm. Example: Sony has four hundred in-house developers, but the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has sixty designers on staff as well. “Design is the only thing that differentiates one product from another in the marketplace.” – Norio Ohga, former chairman, Sony. Companies used to compete on price, quality, or both, but now, those are nothing but tickets to enter the market. After companies satisfy price and quality, they must then focus on less financial/functional qualities, such as whimsy, beauty, and meaning. We use a toaster at most 15 minutes a day. The other 1,425 minutes: it’s on display. 1% utility, 99% significance. “Businesspeople don’t need to understand designers better. They need to be designers.” – Roger Martin, dean, Rotman Management School. Good design can change the world. • Health care: Physicians and administrators usually consider design secondary to prescribing drugs and performing surgery. • A study at Pittsburgh’s Montefiore Hospital: surgery patients in rooms with ample natural light required less pain medication, and their drug costs were 21% lower than their counterparts in traditional rooms. • A better example: the 2000 US Presidential Election • Democrats said that the US Supreme Court handed the election to George W. Bush by halting the recount of the ballots. Republicans said that the Democrats were trying to steal the election by getting voting officials to count “chads” – the rectangular ballot pieces – that were not fully punched out. • They were both wrong. • Turns out that in Palm Beach County, a heavily Democratic enclave populated by tens of thousands of elderly Jewish voters, ultraconservative Pat Buchanan received 3,407 votes (statistical analysis showed that if voting patterns in the other counties in Florida had held in Palm Beach, Buchanan would have received roughly 603 votes). • 5,237 voters marked ballots for both Al Gore AND Pat Buchanan, making their ballots invalid, causing Bush to carry the state by 537 votes. • All of this controversy occurred because of a bad design. Being told a fact vs Being told a story ◦ Someone can be told numerous facts, but when asked a question about those facts, there is a low chance that the person will remember every fact correctly (with some exceptions, of course). ◦ Now, if I tell the same person a story, then ask questions about that story, the person listening is more likely to answer questions correctly because stories are easier to remember due to how our brain works Story is just as integral to the human experience as design As important as story has been, in the “Information Age”, it has received a bad reputation. “Humans are not ideally set up to understand logic; they are ideally set up to understand stories.” – Roger C. Schank, cognitive artist As facts become more available to the world, which is a good thing, the values of those facts start to decrease. How those facts are put into context and to deliver them with emotional impact begins to matter more. This is what Story is about- context enriched by emotion Robert McKee: influential figure in Hollywood. He holds seminars teaching aspiring screenwriters how to write a story. His students have gone to win twenty-six Academy Awards. What does this have to do with business? Everything. Recently, McKee has attracted the following kinds of people seeking his mentoring: executives, entrepreneurs, and workers of traditional business. Story makes business big money. Advertising, counseling, consulting, and so forth – 25% of US gross domestic product If Story is a component of half of these efforts, it is worth about $1 trillion a year to the US economy. Organizational storytelling ◦ Steve Denning – a founder of said movement ◦ Began as a lawyer in Sydney, and then went on to become a midlevel executive at World Bank. ◦ “I was a left brain person. Big organizations love that kind of person.” – Steve Denning Organizational storytelling ◦ One day, in a shake-up, Denning was sent to an organization equivalent in Siberia: a department known as “knowledge management”, eventually becoming the department’s chief. ◦ After a while, he began a transformation. While trying to figure out what knowledge required management, he found that he learned more from trading stories in the cafeteria than he ever did reading the bank’s official documents and reports, changing his L-Directed approach of the first twenty-five years in his career into an R-Directed approach, making World Bank a leader in knowledge management by containing and conveying knowledge in the form of stories. Story is also becoming a great way to distinguish goods and services in a crowded marketplace. In order to try and distinguish your goods/services from others, using stories instead of just stating facts in advertisements can cause potential customers/clients to have an emotional connection with you as a goods/service provider, as opposed to a connection based on facts alone. Medicine and medical devices are becoming more and more important in people’s lives every day by continuously saving many lives and improving others. But, at the expense of the improved medicine and medical devices, the aspect of care has become more mundane. ”Unfortunately, medicine sees anecdote as the lowest form of science.” – Dr. Jack Coulehan, Stony Brook University Hospital in New York. Ex: You go to the doctor. Upon seeing the doctor, you begin to tell a story of why you are there. The doctor will most likely stop you and rely on the just-the-facts approach, telling you what’s wrong and what to take to fix it. While that can work and the medicine will most likely make you feel better, the doctor ignoring the story negates the emotional connection they have to the patient. Having that connection can help ensure that the doctor is giving you the right medication/procedure to help cure you and in turn, decrease the chance of a misdiagnosis occurring. Facts are still needed in medicine, but also integrating Story can help physicians imbue their works with greater empathy. “Stories – that’s how people make sense of what’s happening to them when they get sick. They tell stories about themselves. Our ability as doctors to treat and heal is bound up in our ability to accurately perceive a patient’s story. If you can’t do that, you’re working with one hand tied behind your back.” – Dr. Howard Brody, family practice physician. Symphony The ability to put together the pieces The capacity to synthesize rather than to analyze To see relationships between seemingly unrelated fields To detect broad patterns rather than to deliver specific answers To invent something new by combining elements nobody else thought to pair All of these skills are attributed to R-Directed thinking Neuroscience research has mapped the brain showing that the right hemisphere operates in a simultaneous, contextual, and symphonic manner. Symphony is largely about relationships. In Pink's Conceptual Age, people must understand the connections between diverse, and seemingly separate disciplines. Three types of this conceptual thinker are: The Boundary Crosser The Inventor The Metaphor Maker Develop expertise in multiple spheres Speak different languages Reject either/or choices and seek multiple options and blended solutions “Hey you got peanut butter on my chocolate” “And you got chocolate on my peanut butter” Sometimes the most powerful ideas come from simply combining two existing ideas nobody else ever thought to unite. John Fabel – Ecotrek backpacks Avid cross-country skier inspired by the Brooklyn Bridge Metaphor – understanding one thing in terms of something else “The Western tradition . . . Has excluded metaphor from the domain of reason.” – George Lakoff Often considered ornamentation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyoJJ5GN eKc The ability to marshal relationships into a whole whose value exceeds the sum of its parts The ability to grasp the relationships between relationships One recent study found that self-made millionaires are four times more likely to be dyslexic. Why? Dyslexics struggle with L-Directed Thinking and the linear, sequential, alphabetic reasoning it entails Integrative Medicine Combines conventional medicine with alternative and complementary therapies Holistic Medicine Aims to treat the whole person rather than the particular disease Empathy The ability to imagine yourself in someone else’s position and to intuit what that person is feeling Spontaneous, an act of instinct rather than the product of deliberation Steven Platek, cognitive neuroscientist Contagious yawing is likely a primitive empathic mechanism Found that contagious yawners score high on various tests that measure levels of Empathy Charles Darwin The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 1872 All mammals have emotions and that one way they convey these emotions is through facial expressions Mostly ignored by science and psychology, they felt that culture rather than nurture produced our expressions. Paul Ekman, psychologist Began a study in 1965, showing people photos of faces fixed in various expressions Traveled to Japan, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile Found that people interpreted the expressions the same no matter the country Expanded his study to an isolated tribe of New Guinea Achieved the same results His conclusion: Darwin was right Facial expressions are universal Emotion is conveyed nonverbally Our faces convey the full range of human feeling The right hemisphere of our brain both expresses and reads emotion University of Sussex study: A vast majority of women, regardless of being right or left handed, cradled babies on their left side The explanation: the only way to understand a baby is to read their expressions and intuit their emotions People use their right hemisphere for this interpretation, which they enlist by turning to the left (contra lateral) Work that can be reduced to simply rules require very little empathy This kind of work will continue to be programmed, automated, or outsourced Empathy is reshaping medicine Much of medical practice has been standardized Rules based medicine is effective and able to be replicated by computers New kind of health care professional – able to combine rules based detachment with emotion-based empathy Medical schools are now teaching courses in patient empathy Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) High scores on the Empathy test correlated to high mark in clinical care – all things being equal, a patient was more likely to get better with an empathetic doctor than a detached one Scores on the Empathy test bore no relation to scores on the MCAT or licensing tests – traditional measures of a physician's aptitude aren’t necessarily relevant to determining the best doctor Nurses, high empathy jobs, scored higher than phyicians with hospital-based sepcialties Multiple studies have shown that women are generally better at reading facial expressions and detecting lies The Essential Difference, Simon Cohen 2003 “The female brain is predominantly hard-wired for empathy. The male brain is predominately hard-wired for understanding and building systems.” NOT ALWAYS TRUE!!! But, more males than females have brains that systemize and more females than males have brains that empathize Systemize – exactness, attention to local detail, an attraction to fixed rules independent of context, detachment Empathize – inexactness (can only approximate feelings), attention to the larger picture, context, and a emotional attachment Will need both attributes to be successful in The Conceptual Age Play Dr. Madan Kataria Long life through laughter Started “Laughter Clubs” ◦ 2500 in existence to date ◦ Worldwide Games Video Games popularity increasing Gaming industry nets more sales than the movie industry Recruiting via America’s Army Studies support gamers playing Humor Right brained (frontal lobe) process Good humor indicates “higher emotional intelligence” Left brained people tend to be less humorous and/or understand humor Joyfulness “Namaste Laugh” “Think globally, laugh locally” Laughter = Exercise ? Laughter has exceptional benefits Meaning Viktor Frankl “Man’s Search for Meaning” Survived Nazi imprisonment “logotherapy” Taking Spirituality Seriously “Investigating the Mind” Conference “A Spiritual Audit of Corporate America” – Ian Mitroff Spirit as Business Taking Happiness Seriously Maze vs. Labyrinth Laugh Loud, Laugh Often Thank you for playing!