A Nation Dividing 15-2 Objectives • Learn how the Fugitive Slave Act and the KansasNebraska Act further divided the North and South. • Learn how popular sovereignty led to violence. Compromise of 1850 • California would be admitted as a free state. • New Mexico Territory would have no restrictions on slavery. • The New Mexico/Texas border dispute would be settled in favor of New Mexico. • The slave trade would be abolished in Washington, D.C. • A strict fugitive slave law would be passed. California Admitted as Free State Admitted to the Union as a free state September 9, 1850 New Mexico Territory There would be no restrictions on slavery in the New Mexico Territory New Mexico-Texas Border Dispute The dispute between Texas and New Mexico over what the border would be would be settled in New Mexico’s favor. Slave Trade Ban Slavery was allowed, but the buying and selling of slaves was banned in Washington, D.C. Fugitive Slave Act Required all citizens to help in the capture and return of escaped slaves.. Those helping could be fined or imprisoned. Resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act Abolitionists refused to help enforce the act. Many helped runaways. Juries refused to convict. One of the most successful groups was the “underground railroad”. One of the activists was Harriet Tubman. Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a system of safe houses and locations by which runaway slaves could hide and be helped on their journey to freedom. Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the novel exposing the evils slaves faced. Beatings, whippings, chains, families separated, living conditions. This helped widen the division between the North and South on the issue of slavery. When Abraham Lincoln met Stowe, he is reported to have said, “So you wrote the book that started this great war”. Kansas-Nebraska Act As railroads began moving west of the Mississippi River, Stephan A. Douglas from Illinois wanted Chicago to be the starting point for a trans continental railroad. Slavery Issue Most of the territory west of the Mississippi river lay above the Missouri Compromise Line of 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude. So states from this territory would be free states, strengthening the North’s power in Congress. Popular Sovereignty Because Douglas knew the South would object to his plan, he proposed eliminating the Missouri Compromise Line and allowing the people living in that territory the right to determine whether or not to have slavery. Legislation Passes On May 4, 1854, The Kansas-Nebraska Act passes Congress. The territory is divided into Kansas and Nebraska. Popular sovereignty will decide the issue of slavery. Conflicts Ignite In the spring of 1855 elections are held. Border Ruffians, primarily pro-slavery people from Missouri crossed the border and effected the elections. A pro-slavery government is voted in. Anti-Slavery Elections Kansans not happy with the results, hold their own elections and an anti-slavery government is chosen. Washington Politics President Franklin Pierce and the United States’ Senate supported the pro-slavery government. Washington Politics The House of Representatives supported the anti-slavery government. Violence On May 21 1856, pro slavery people attacked the town of Lawrence Kansas. The shelled the town, burn the hotel. John Brown In retaliation, John Brown, with his sons and some loyal followers went out to seek revenge for the attack on Lawrence. Pottawattamie Creek Massacre On the night of May 24 John Brown and his followers came to the cabin of James Doyle and murdered the five males of the household. Bleeding Kansas These two events led to the territorial nickname, “Bleeding Kansas”. Violence in Congress On May 19 and 20, Senator Charles Sumner from Massachusetts, a leading abolitionist, gave a speech condemning the Kansas Nebraska Act and slavery in general. During the speech he had attacked the pro-slavery senators, in particular Andrew P. Butler of South Carolina. Preston Brooks In response, Preston Brooks, Butler’s distant cousin came into the senate and in front of the whole chamber beat Sumner repeatedly with a cane. American Dividing All of these incidents of violence from “Bleeding Kansas”, the Pottawattamie Massacre, to the Charles Sumner beating revealed to the nation how deeply divided the nation was on the issue of slavery.