Chapter 4 Ancient India rd 3 River Valley The Indus and Ganges River Valleys “People are often unreasonable and self-centered. Forgive them anyway. If you are kind, people may accuse you of ulterior motives. Be kind anyway. If you are honest, people may cheat you. Be honest anyway. If you find happiness, people may be jealous. Be happy anyway. The good you do today may be forgotten tomorrow. Do good anyway. Give the world the best you have and it may never be enough. Give your best anyway. For you see, in the end, it is between you and God. It was never between you and them anyway.” ― Mother Teresa [1910-1997] NUN, Missionary and saint Key Word and Key Places • Citadel – a fortress • Migration –to move from one area to another • Tributaries – small rivers or streams, which flow into a large river or stream. • Subcontinent: a large landmass jutting southern from a continent • Indus River Valley- fertile area near the Indus River- Pakistan today More Vocabulary • • • • Monsoon : heavy winds and rain Himalayas : mt. chain NE of India Hindu Kush : mt. chain NW of India Mohenjo-Daro : first, well-planned city • Harappa : city in ancient India Geographical Information • Himalaya Mts. – a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau of China • Hindu Kush Mts.- long mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. • Indus River – one of the seven sacred rivers of Hindus. Now the river flows through China (Tibet)and the rest of Pakistan. • Ganges River – Great river of the plains of northern India. SUBCONTINENT Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, Indus River, Ganges River, Himalayas, Hindu Kush Mts. Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, North, South, East, West, Nepal • Have you ever gone on a hike or a walk? – If a river ran across the path you were on and there was no bridge, what would you do? What if it was a really big, deep fast moving river? – Have you ever been in a desert? – What is something you must bring with you in the desert? – How does a person get across a desert? – How about mountain climbing? – How do you cross a mountain range? Rivers, deserts, mountains, and seas are all called what? ___________________________ Geography • EAST of the Fertile Crescent • India’s peninsula called a SUBCONTINENT: large landmass that juts out from a continent • Indus River Valley: located b/w 2 mountain chains – Himalayas and the Hindu Kush– Today it’s PAKISTAN. • India experiences MONSOONS – strong winds that blow acrossMonsoons the region at certain times of the year. • JUNE – SEPT. summer monsoons- carries rains that drench the plains from the ARABIAN SEA. – if the monsoons are late or weak, FAMINE could strike- no rain for the land • From Oct. –Dec. winter monsoons- dry cold air across the country from the HIMALAYAS – Too much rain – overflowing rivers: death to people Geography …cont’d • Himalayas – natural barrier b/w India and Asia 1,500 miles long Highest and Youngest • Indus River – formed from streams of melting snow in the spring on the Hindu Kush and Himalayas, river flows south • Valley had fertile from silt and overflowing rivers - this attracted the a tribe of Indo-European-speaking, horseriding nomads - from Mesopotamia. Farming Economy • Had fertile land • Tributaries small rivers that flow into a larger river • Use irrigation • Grow fruits, wheat, rice • First to grow COTTON !!!! Life in the Indus River Valley • From rich soil, early farmers harvested a surplus of wheat and other grains • The surplus helped the population to grow. • Some villages became CITIES. • The first city- Mohenjo- Daro, lay along the banks of the Indus River. World’s Earliest City Planners Mohenjo-Daro was a large city that needed proper planning • Because of the Indus River flooding, the city had to be built on a high mound. • To make travel easy- streets were laid out in squares- like a grid. • At the center- the citadel. • Monhenjo-Daro had indoor plumbing , had clay pipes- and sewers- to carry waste from homes. Where my parents live, it’s laid out just like Mohenjo-Daro Mohenjo-Daro and the Citadel.. Public bath too. Citadels Citadel • Citadel was a fortress– center of city – used for religious and gov’t purposes. –Taller than a ziggurat-temples of Mesopotamia • Used to protect the people of the Indus River Valley b/c they didn’t have any city walls. Living in Mohenjo-Daro • Artisans and farmers sold their goods in shops along the streets • Carriages loaded with grains pulled into town • Traders came from as far as Mesopotamia to buy and sell • Children played with cards and chess. • Artisans made clothes and bright colored jewelry. • Still a mystery? – writing, form of government and religious beliefs. No royal tombs or great temples have been found. Section 2 Hinduism and Ancient India –reincarnation- rebirth of the soul –dharma- the religious or moral duties of each person –Ahimsa- belief in nonviolence A Blend of Religions • Hinduism- one of the world’s major religions • A way of life for more than 850 million people in India • People were polytheists. Hindu Gods • Three most important are: – Brahma – the CREATOR – Vishnu – the PRESERVER – Shiva – the DESTROYER – The gods take on many different forms called AVATARS – where a god will be represented as a human or animal Section 3 - Buddhism • Key Terms –Meditate: focus one’s mind, think deeply –Nirvana: the state of perfect happiness –Missionaries – people who spread their religious beliefs to others The Buddha and his Teachings • Believed in meditation – to focus the mind inward in order to find spiritual awareness • Buddha: “Selfish desires cause human suffering.” Release from Reincarnation • In order to be released from the cycle of reincarnation, a person must reach nirvana – perfect happiness • How? – Tell the truth – Avoid violence and killings – Treat people fairly Achieve 3000: Floods Hit South Asia • Is living in places that can flood worth the risk? • https://youtu.be/9peDRkO-TLc th 4 River Valley Chapter 5 Ancient China North, South, East, West, Himalayas, Chang “Yangzte” River, Huang “Yellow” River, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, North China Plain, Beijing, Great Wall of China, Mongolia, Plateau of Tibet, Nepal, Russia, HARBIN Michael and Conor at the Great Wall There are many parts to the Great Wall and different emperor's had different parts built. The total time span was many centuries. The first parts were completed about 200 BCE and the last parts were added over 200 years during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). There is no exact amount of years on the building of a large project such as the Great Wall of China. Some of it was built over 2000 years ago, several parts were added or substantially re-built over several centuries. The most recent rebuilding was about 500 years ago, except for those parts rebuilt very recently to aid tourism. The Harbin Ice Festival https://mail.bethpage.ws/owa/attachment.ashx?attach=1&id=RgAAAACPX341VfOnQ 5s2YklH515FBwDzJvSfSNZIQ41GjuosTrkPAAADCZI0AADzJvSfSNZIQ41GjuosTrkP AAADCZYCAAAJ&attid0=EADALhDroN88Tpfc5mbUc9DN&attcnt=1 48.31 US Dollar ADULTS Annual Income = $3000 [$58 /week] 160 Chinese Yuan equals 25.76 US Dollar HARBIN residents Geography • region: Northeast/ Eastern China = best FARMLAND HUANG [Yellow] RIVER VALLEY –begins in a vast plateau: area of flat land raised above surrounding land It brought LOESS [LUSS] yellow-brown soil Geography – cont’d • “China’s Sorrow” • • • • Bad and dangerous flooding. Flooding brought life to the land It also took life away Without warning as often as every 2 yearswashed crops away and kills many • Early Chinese built dikes – a protective wall to hold back the waters. • It wasn’t the ideal place for a civilization. Do Chinese civilization from Smart notebook The Rise and Fall of Chinese Dynasties 1. A new dynasty rises. A strong local leader defeats others. Adds new land. 5. A period of violence follows. Local rulers fight for power 4. The dynasty falls Rebellions put an end to weak dynasty. 2. The new dynasty rules. Restores peace. Chooses officials. Changes made. 3. The dynasty grows weak. Rulers don’t do the hard work needed to keep an empire. Lose control of their conquered land. Can’t cope with famine, earthquakes and invasions. SHANG DYNASTY • Dynasty = line of rulers who belong to the same family and pass control to the next generation. • First writings and horse-drawn carriages, and bronze work • Lasted 600 yrs • An Oracle- a special priest who is believed to receive messages from the gods. – They would write a question on the shoulder blade bone of a pig and heat it. The way the bone cracked was believed to be the answer from the gods. – *Emperors often used oracles to help them make important decisions. Family • May contain 5 generations living together. • EXTENDED Family – closely related people • OLDEST male is in charge …final approvalhe decided who his children would marry • Some boys went to scribe school and wrote in many Chinese characters 萬里長 • The first to use 2 names: family name – father to son= first name, then the individual’s name . EX: Washington George – This showed how important the family was • Girls- at age 15 - had a special ceremony. Their hair was pinned up. Called The Hairpinning ceremony. It symbolized she was about to marry. The latest age would be 20. Family ….continued • ELDERS most respected- when they die – all the land is divided to his sons • Spirit of ANCESTORS were important –Shrines were built to honor them when they passed. Women’s Role- Mulan Story • • LOWER status than men Women were bound by three obediences: 1. Obey their FATHER in youth 2. Obey their HUSBAND in marriage 3. Obey their sons in WIDOWHOOD • Four virtues -QUALITIES- which also guided women: – 1. Morality- doing what is right, – 2. Modesty -respecting their bodies and self – 3. Proper speech – 4. Domestic skills -household chores Ancient China The True Story of Mulan Retold by Lin Donn Illustrated by Phillip Martin Mulan In Han times, or perhaps Sui times, but certainly before T’ang times, there lived a young girl named Mulan. Her father was a retired and famous general. He taught her to use a sword and ride a horse, which was most unusual. Boys were taught to fight and ride, not girls. Mulan One day, the military posted scrolls in the village. The scroll announced that each family had to send one man to the army. Mulan’s father was too old to fight, but too honorable not to go. Mulan had no older brother to send in his place. Her baby brother was brave and strong, but much too young to be selected. Mulan Girls did not fight in wars. If only she were a boy, Mulan thought to herself. It would be so simple. An idea grew in Mulan’s mind. Could she do it? She had to. Mulan knew her father would die if he went to war again. That day, she bought a horse. Mulan The next morning, Mulan stole her father’s armor and crept silently from home. Disguised as a man, she reported for duty to the military leader. Mulan fought for many years, some say as many as ten years. In all that time, no one knew that Mulan was a woman. Mulan When the war ended, Mulan was called before the emperor to receive an award for her courage. The emperor offered Mulan a job that would make her rich. But Mulan wished to return to her family. She asked for a good horse instead, a request that was granted immediately. Mulan Her family was happy to see her. Her brother had grown into a fine young man. Mulan gave him her warrior’s clothes. She dressed herself in woman’s clothes. She wrapped her hair in the style of the day. She added rouge to her cheeks. When she joined her family to watch the sun set, Mulan had transformed into a beautiful young woman. Mulan Not long after, friends who had served with Mulan came to visit. Their eyes grew large when they saw the beautiful woman before them. Her story spread across China, to inspire girls everywhere. If you love enough and have courage enough, you can accomplish anything, no matter how impossible it might seem. Question Based on this story and allowing for your own opinion, do you think girls should served in the army? Why or why not? (Justify your answer) Confucius • Scholar and teacher • born when China was in chaos • Believes in mutual respect • If people would treat others properly then order and peace would result. • READ story pg 139 Influence of Confucius • The teaching of Confucius had major effects on the Chinese gov’t. • His belief became the basis for – Civil Service - is the group of people who carry out the work of the gov’t. • A MERIT SYSTEM - a job was given to a person based on his qualification – not b/c he was the son of a gov’t official. • Candidates had to pass official tests About Civil Service • • • • • Police Basic Arithmetic – Working with US Money Army security Count the money. How much money is there? your firemen some school positions: lunch, clerical, secretaries, buildings and grounds • Administrative and Clerical • Arrange the following items in alphabetical order for filing: • 1.Michael Jordan • 2.Janis Joplin • 3.Michael Jackson • 4.Jennifer Lopez Achievements: • Arts: – Silk weaving – Bronze work – Poetry – Architecture – Jade carvings – Great Wall- 4,160 miles long, • Qin Shin Dynasty, then the Ming Dynasty • Medicine – ACUPUNCTURE – a treatment to treat disease w/ needles – Herbal remedies • Technology – Paper – Iron plow – Rudder – Wheelbarrow – compass Let’s learn to count in Chinese a real Chinese woman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD77sfgCRJI • • • • • 1 “ee” 2 “ ur ” 3 “ san ” 4 “ szi ” [si] 5 “ooo” • • • • • 6 “ leeoh ” 7 “ chee ” 8 “ bah ” 9 “ g-oe” 10 “ sher ” 1. Place the first chopstick in the hollow between thumb and index finger and rest its lower end below the first joint of the third finger. This chopstick remains stationary. 2. Hold the other chopstick between the tips of the index and middle fingers, steady its upper half against the base of the index finger, and use the tips of the thumb to keep it in place. 3. To pick up things, move the upper chopstick with index and middle fingers. 4. After a little practice, you will be able to use chopsticks like an expert. China’s New Year-Zodiac https://youtu.be/Iw0adpGLIdk Year of the Goat Lucky numbers: 2, 7, or numbers containing 2 and 7 People born in a year of the Goat are generally believed to be •gentle •Shy •sympathetic • Friendly •a strong sense of kindheartedness •strong creativity •show perseverance. • Although they look gentle on the surface, they are tough on the inside, always insisting on their own opinions in their minds. • prefer to be in groups, • they do not want to be the center of attention. •They are reserved and quiet, most likely because they like spending much time in their thoughts. •Goats like to spend money on fashionable things that give them a first class appearance •they are not snobbish. HORSE 2002 •Lucky Colors: yellow and green •Lucky Numbers: 2, 3, 7, and numbers containing them (like 23 and 37) People born in a year of the Horse are • extremely animated • active and energetic. • love to be in a crowd • they can usually be seen on such occasions as concerts, theater performances, meetings, sporting events, and parties. • They love to take center stage and delight audiences everywhere. • Sometimes, the Horse is a little self-centered, but it doesn't mean that s/he can not be interested in others' problems. • very healthy • hold a positive attitude towards life. • heavy responsibility or pressure from their job may make them weak. • Are more of an early-bird, than a night-owl. • Also Horses should refuse some invitations to parties at night • Rat: charming, successful, hardworking (2020, 2008,1996,1984,1972,1960) • Ox: patient, quiet, good listener (2021,2009, 1997, 1985, 1973, 1961) • Tiger: courageous, aggressive, adventurous (2022, 2010, 1998, 1986, 1974, 1962) • Rabbit: trustworthy, talented, well-mannered (2023,1999, 1987, 1975, 1963) • Dragon: powerful, energetic, confident (2012, 2000, 1988, 1976, 1964) • Snake: charming, mysterious, passionate (2013, 2001, 1989, 1977, 1965) • Horse: cheerful, independent, skillful (2014, 2002, 1990, 1978, 1966) • Goat/Sheep: elegant, compassionate, kind-spirited (2015, 2003, 1991, 1979, 1967) • Monkey: mischievous, successful, adventurous (2016, 2004,1992,1980,1968) • Rooster: determined, busy, talented (2017, 2005, 1993, 1981, 1969) • Dog: honest, loyal, charismatic (2018, 2006, 1994, 1982, 1970) • Pig: studious, quiet, affectionate (2019, 2007, 1995, 1983, 1971) Best Matches for 12 Signs: • • • • • • • • • • • • Rat: Ox: Tiger: Rabbit: Dragon: Snake: Horse: Sheep: Monkey: Rooster: Dog: Pig: Ox, Rabbit and Dragon Rat, Monkey and Rooster Dragon, Horse and Pig Sheep, Monkey, Dog and Pig Rat, Tiger and Snake Dragon and Rooster Tiger, Sheep and Rabbit Rabbit, Horse and Pig Ox and Rabbit Ox and Snake Rabbit Tiger, Rabbit and Sheep “When a son is born, Let him sleep on the bed, Clothe him in fine clothes, And give him jade to play…. When a daughter is born, Let her sleep on the ground, Wrap her in common wrappings, And give her broken tiles to play…” What message is this poem sending to you, the reader? China’s One Child Policy • In 1979,China [was to temporarily] have adopted a law that specified that you were only allowed to have one child in urban areas • Millions of people dying of starvation annually because the population was extremely bigger than the production – too much competition for limited resources]. • China adopted this law because China needed to limit the population growth – current pop. 1.4 billion • In rural areas you can try for another child. • If a couple both do not have siblings, they may try to have two children • If you broke this law then you were fined a lot of money. Rich people were able to pay the fine and keep the child. – No Bill of Rights to protect you from unfair bail and punishment – They are a Communist region – the government controls all areas of their lives. The people have no say. • Boys were wanted. – Name – Take care of elderly parents financially in the future • Girls were abandoned or even left along the road side. – Never to know their mothers • Girls were “like pouring precious water out of a basin” = a waste. • Families of girls must pay dowries to the groom’s family when they are married. • The shortage of women has left some men unable to marry and have a family • This law was to end in 2010 , but it has not. • Prevented about 300 million births According to law,a woman can only give birth once. So, some years ago, Jiao Na got pregnant and gave birth to a son, Bei Bei. And then a few minutes later she had a daughter, Jin Jin, then another son, Huan Huan, a second daughter, Ying Ying, and finally another girl, Ni Ni. She and her husband beat China's onechild policy by having quintuplets. But life has not been easy for them. Their small farm does not bring in much money. They have had to give Ying Ying to a relative because they cannot afford to raise all five children on their own. They managed to beat China's system. • Orphanages raise the children. • There are also a great deal of older children (boys and girls) whose families couldn't afford them and are forced to give them up - rather than have them starve to death. • A number of children are abandoned because they have disabilities that the family doesn't have the resources to deal with. • Many families live in absolute poverty, and while the kids (usually girls) aren't given up, they may have had a better life if they were. China’s One Child Policy REFORMED [changed] • http://www.cnn.com/2013/12/28/world/asia /china-one-child-policy-official/ •Finally!