Chapter 5 Lesson 1

Chapter 4
Ancient India
3 River Valley
The Indus and Ganges
River Valleys
“People are often unreasonable and self-centered.
Forgive them anyway.
If you are kind, people may accuse you of ulterior
motives. Be kind anyway.
If you are honest, people may cheat you. Be honest
If you find happiness, people may be jealous. Be happy
The good you do today may be forgotten tomorrow. Do
good anyway.
Give the world the best you have and it may never be
enough. Give your best anyway.
For you see, in the end, it is between you and God. It
was never between you and them anyway.”
― Mother Teresa [1910-1997]
and saint
Key Word and Key Places
• Citadel – a fortress
• Migration –to move from one area to
• Tributaries – small rivers or streams,
which flow into a large river or stream.
• Subcontinent: a large landmass jutting
southern from a continent
• Indus River Valley- fertile area near the
Indus River- Pakistan today
More Vocabulary
Monsoon : heavy winds and rain
Himalayas : mt. chain NE of India
Hindu Kush : mt. chain NW of India
Mohenjo-Daro : first, well-planned
• Harappa : city in ancient India
Geographical Information
Himalaya Mts. – a mountain
range in Asia separating the
plains of the Indian
subcontinent from the
Tibetan Plateau of China
Hindu Kush Mts.- long
mountain range that stretches
between central Afghanistan
and northern Pakistan.
Indus River – one of the
seven sacred rivers of
Hindus. Now the river flows
through China (Tibet)and the
rest of Pakistan.
Ganges River – Great river of
the plains of northern India.
Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, Indus River,
Ganges River, Himalayas, Hindu Kush Mts. Harappa,
Mohenjo-Daro, North, South, East, West, Nepal
• Have you ever gone on a hike or
a walk?
– If a river ran across the path you were on and there
was no bridge, what would you do? What if it was a
really big, deep fast moving river?
– Have you ever been in a desert?
– What is something you must bring with you in the
– How does a person get across a desert?
– How about mountain climbing?
– How do you cross a mountain range?
Rivers, deserts, mountains, and
seas are all called what?
• EAST of the Fertile Crescent
• India’s peninsula called a
SUBCONTINENT: large landmass that
juts out from a continent
• Indus River Valley: located b/w 2
mountain chains – Himalayas and the
Hindu Kush– Today it’s PAKISTAN.
• India experiences MONSOONS – strong winds
that blow acrossMonsoons
the region at certain times of
the year.
• JUNE – SEPT. summer monsoons- carries
rains that drench the plains from the ARABIAN
– if the monsoons are late or weak, FAMINE could
strike- no rain for the land
• From Oct. –Dec. winter monsoons- dry cold air
across the country from the HIMALAYAS
– Too much rain – overflowing rivers: death to people
Geography …cont’d
• Himalayas – natural barrier b/w India
and Asia 1,500 miles long Highest and
• Indus River – formed from streams of
melting snow in the spring on the Hindu
Kush and Himalayas, river flows south
• Valley had fertile from silt and
overflowing rivers - this attracted the a
tribe of Indo-European-speaking, horseriding nomads - from Mesopotamia.
Farming Economy
• Had fertile
• Tributaries
small rivers
that flow into a
larger river
• Use irrigation
• Grow fruits,
wheat, rice
• First to grow
Life in the Indus River Valley
• From rich soil, early farmers
harvested a surplus of wheat and
other grains
• The surplus helped the population to
• Some villages became CITIES.
• The first city- Mohenjo- Daro, lay
along the banks of the Indus River.
World’s Earliest City Planners
Mohenjo-Daro was a large city
that needed proper planning
• Because of the Indus River
flooding, the city had to be built
on a high mound.
• To make travel easy- streets
were laid out in squares- like a
• At the center- the citadel.
• Monhenjo-Daro had indoor
plumbing , had clay pipes- and
sewers- to carry waste from
Where my parents live, it’s laid out just like Mohenjo-Daro
Mohenjo-Daro and the Citadel..
Public bath too.
• Citadel was a fortress– center of
city – used for religious and gov’t
–Taller than a ziggurat-temples of
• Used to protect the people of the
Indus River Valley b/c they didn’t
have any city walls.
Living in Mohenjo-Daro
• Artisans and farmers sold their goods in
shops along the streets
• Carriages loaded with grains pulled into
• Traders came from as far as Mesopotamia
to buy and sell
• Children played with cards and chess.
• Artisans made clothes and bright colored
• Still a mystery? – writing, form of
government and religious beliefs. No royal
tombs or great temples have been found.
Section 2
Hinduism and Ancient
–reincarnation- rebirth of
the soul
–dharma- the religious or
moral duties of each person
–Ahimsa- belief in
A Blend of Religions
• Hinduism- one of the
world’s major religions
• A way of life for more than
850 million people in India
• People were polytheists.
Hindu Gods
• Three most important are:
– Brahma – the CREATOR
– Vishnu – the PRESERVER
– Shiva – the DESTROYER
– The gods take on many different
forms called AVATARS – where a god
will be represented as a human or
Section 3 - Buddhism
• Key Terms
–Meditate: focus one’s mind, think
–Nirvana: the state of perfect
–Missionaries – people who spread
their religious beliefs to others
The Buddha and his
• Believed in meditation – to focus
the mind inward in order to find
spiritual awareness
• Buddha: “Selfish desires cause
human suffering.”
Release from Reincarnation
• In order to be released from the cycle of
reincarnation, a person must reach
nirvana – perfect happiness
• How?
– Tell the truth
– Avoid violence and killings
– Treat people fairly
Achieve 3000:
Floods Hit South Asia
• Is living in places that can flood worth the risk?
River Valley
Chapter 5
Ancient China
North, South, East, West, Himalayas, Chang “Yangzte” River, Huang
“Yellow” River, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, North China Plain, Beijing,
Great Wall of China, Mongolia, Plateau of Tibet, Nepal, Russia, HARBIN
Michael and
Conor at the
Great Wall
There are many parts to the Great Wall and different emperor's had different
parts built. The total time span was many centuries. The first parts were
completed about 200 BCE and the last parts were added over 200 years during
the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). There is no exact amount of years on the
building of a large project such as the Great Wall of China. Some of it was built
over 2000 years ago, several parts were added or substantially re-built over
several centuries. The most recent rebuilding was about 500 years ago, except
for those parts rebuilt very recently to aid tourism.
The Harbin Ice Festival
48.31 US Dollar ADULTS
Annual Income = $3000 [$58 /week]
160 Chinese Yuan equals
25.76 US Dollar HARBIN residents
• region:
Northeast/ Eastern China = best
HUANG [Yellow] RIVER VALLEY –begins
in a vast plateau: area of flat land raised
above surrounding land
It brought LOESS [LUSS] yellow-brown soil
Geography – cont’d
• “China’s Sorrow”
Bad and dangerous flooding.
Flooding brought life to the land
It also took life away
Without warning as often as every 2 yearswashed crops away and kills many
• Early Chinese built dikes – a protective
wall to hold back the waters.
• It wasn’t the ideal place for a civilization.
Do Chinese civilization from Smart notebook
The Rise and Fall of Chinese
1. A new
dynasty rises.
A strong local
leader defeats
Adds new land.
5. A period
of violence
Local rulers
fight for
4. The
dynasty falls
Rebellions put
an end to
weak dynasty.
2. The new
dynasty rules.
Restores peace.
Chooses officials.
Changes made.
3. The dynasty grows
Rulers don’t do the
hard work needed to
keep an empire.
Lose control of their
conquered land.
Can’t cope with famine,
earthquakes and
• Dynasty = line of rulers who belong to the
same family and pass control to the next
• First writings and horse-drawn carriages, and
bronze work
• Lasted 600 yrs
• An Oracle- a special priest who is believed to
receive messages from the gods.
– They would write a question on the shoulder blade
bone of a pig and heat it. The way the bone cracked
was believed to be the answer from the gods.
– *Emperors often used oracles to help them make
important decisions.
• May contain 5 generations living together.
• EXTENDED Family – closely related people
• OLDEST male is in charge …final approvalhe decided who his children would marry
• Some boys went to scribe school and wrote
in many Chinese characters 萬里長
• The first to use 2 names: family name –
father to son= first name, then the individual’s
name . EX: Washington George
– This showed how important the family
• Girls- at age 15 - had a special ceremony.
Their hair was pinned up. Called The Hairpinning ceremony. It symbolized she was
about to marry. The latest age would be 20.
Family ….continued
• ELDERS most
respected- when they die
– all the land is divided to
his sons
• Spirit of ANCESTORS
were important –Shrines
were built to honor them
when they passed.
Women’s Role- Mulan Story
LOWER status than men
Women were bound by three obediences:
1. Obey their FATHER in youth
2. Obey their HUSBAND in marriage
3. Obey their sons in WIDOWHOOD
• Four virtues -QUALITIES- which also guided
– 1. Morality- doing what is right,
– 2. Modesty -respecting their bodies and self
– 3. Proper speech
– 4. Domestic skills -household chores
Ancient China
The True Story
of Mulan
Retold by Lin Donn
Illustrated by Phillip Martin
In Han times, or perhaps Sui
times, but certainly before
T’ang times, there lived a
young girl named Mulan.
Her father was a retired
and famous general. He
taught her to use a sword
and ride a horse, which
was most unusual. Boys
were taught to fight and
ride, not girls.
One day, the military posted scrolls in the village.
The scroll announced that each family had to send
one man to the army.
Mulan’s father was too old to
fight, but too honorable not to
go. Mulan had no older brother
to send in his place. Her baby
brother was brave and strong,
but much too young to be
Girls did not fight in wars. If only she were a boy,
Mulan thought to herself. It would be so simple.
An idea grew in Mulan’s
mind. Could she do it?
She had to. Mulan knew
her father would die if he
went to war again.
That day, she bought a horse.
The next morning, Mulan stole
her father’s armor and crept
silently from home. Disguised
as a man, she reported for duty
to the military leader.
Mulan fought for many years,
some say as many as ten years.
In all that time, no one knew that
Mulan was a woman.
When the war ended, Mulan was called before the
emperor to receive an award for her courage. The
emperor offered Mulan a job that would make her
rich. But Mulan wished to return to her family. She
asked for a good horse instead, a request that was
granted immediately.
Her family was happy to see her. Her
brother had grown into a fine young man.
Mulan gave him her warrior’s clothes.
She dressed herself in woman’s clothes.
She wrapped her hair in the style of the
day. She added rouge to her cheeks.
When she joined her family to watch the
sun set, Mulan had transformed into a
beautiful young woman.
Not long after, friends who had served with Mulan
came to visit. Their eyes grew large when they saw
the beautiful woman before them.
Her story spread across
China, to inspire girls
everywhere. If you love
enough and have courage
enough, you can accomplish
anything, no matter how
impossible it might seem.
Based on this story and
allowing for your own
opinion, do you think girls
should served in the army?
Why or why not?
(Justify your answer)
• Scholar and teacher
• born when China was in
• Believes in mutual
• If people would treat
others properly then
order and peace would
• READ story pg 139
Influence of Confucius
• The teaching of Confucius had major
effects on the Chinese gov’t.
• His belief became the basis for – Civil Service - is the group of people
who carry out the work of the gov’t.
• A MERIT SYSTEM - a job was given
to a person based on his qualification
– not b/c he was the son of a gov’t
• Candidates had to pass official tests
About Civil Service
Basic Arithmetic – Working
with US Money
Count the money. How much
money is there?
your firemen
some school
positions: lunch,
clerical, secretaries,
buildings and
• Administrative and Clerical
• Arrange the following items in alphabetical order
for filing:
• 1.Michael Jordan
• 2.Janis Joplin
• 3.Michael Jackson
• 4.Jennifer Lopez
• Arts:
– Silk weaving
– Bronze work
– Poetry
– Architecture
– Jade carvings
– Great Wall- 4,160
miles long,
• Qin Shin Dynasty,
then the Ming
• Medicine
treatment to treat
disease w/ needles
– Herbal remedies
• Technology
– Paper
– Iron plow
– Rudder
– Wheelbarrow
– compass
Let’s learn to count in Chinese a real
Chinese woman
1 “ee”
2 “ ur ”
3 “ san ”
4 “ szi ” [si]
5 “ooo”
6 “ leeoh ”
7 “ chee ”
8 “ bah ”
9 “ g-oe”
10 “ sher ”
1. Place the first chopstick in the hollow between thumb and index finger and
rest its lower end below the first joint of the third finger. This chopstick
remains stationary.
2. Hold the other chopstick between the tips of the index and middle fingers,
steady its upper half against the base of the index finger, and use the tips of
the thumb to keep it in place.
3. To pick up things, move the upper chopstick with index and middle fingers.
4. After a little practice, you will be able to use chopsticks like an expert.
China’s New Year-Zodiac
Year of the Goat
Lucky numbers: 2, 7, or numbers containing 2 and 7
People born in a year of the Goat are generally believed to be
• Friendly
•a strong sense of kindheartedness
•strong creativity
•show perseverance.
• Although they look gentle on the surface, they are tough on the inside, always insisting
on their own opinions in their minds.
• prefer to be in groups,
• they do not want to be the center of attention.
•They are reserved and quiet, most likely because they like spending much time in their
•Goats like to spend money on fashionable things that give them a first class
•they are not snobbish.
HORSE 2002
•Lucky Colors: yellow and green
•Lucky Numbers: 2, 3, 7, and numbers containing them (like 23 and 37)
People born in a year of the Horse are
• extremely animated
• active and energetic.
• love to be in a crowd
• they can usually be seen on such occasions as concerts, theater
performances, meetings, sporting events, and parties.
• They love to take center stage and delight audiences everywhere.
• Sometimes, the Horse is a little self-centered, but it doesn't
mean that s/he can not be interested in others' problems.
• very healthy
• hold a positive attitude towards life.
• heavy responsibility or pressure from their job may make them weak.
• Are more of an early-bird, than a night-owl.
• Also Horses should refuse some invitations to parties at night
• Rat: charming, successful, hardworking
(2020, 2008,1996,1984,1972,1960)
• Ox: patient, quiet, good listener (2021,2009, 1997,
1985, 1973, 1961)
• Tiger: courageous, aggressive, adventurous (2022,
2010, 1998, 1986, 1974, 1962)
• Rabbit: trustworthy, talented, well-mannered
(2023,1999, 1987, 1975, 1963)
• Dragon: powerful, energetic, confident (2012,
2000, 1988, 1976, 1964)
• Snake: charming, mysterious, passionate (2013,
2001, 1989, 1977, 1965)
• Horse: cheerful, independent, skillful (2014, 2002,
1990, 1978, 1966)
• Goat/Sheep: elegant, compassionate, kind-spirited
(2015, 2003, 1991, 1979, 1967)
• Monkey: mischievous, successful, adventurous
(2016, 2004,1992,1980,1968)
• Rooster: determined, busy, talented (2017, 2005,
1993, 1981, 1969)
• Dog: honest, loyal, charismatic (2018, 2006, 1994,
1982, 1970)
• Pig: studious, quiet, affectionate (2019, 2007, 1995,
1983, 1971)
Best Matches for 12 Signs:
Ox, Rabbit and Dragon
Rat, Monkey and Rooster
Dragon, Horse and Pig
Sheep, Monkey, Dog and Pig
Rat, Tiger and Snake
Dragon and Rooster
Tiger, Sheep and Rabbit
Rabbit, Horse and Pig
Ox and Rabbit
Ox and Snake
Tiger, Rabbit and Sheep
“When a son is born,
Let him sleep on the bed,
Clothe him in fine clothes,
And give him jade to play….
When a daughter is born,
Let her sleep on the ground,
Wrap her in common wrappings,
And give her broken tiles to play…”
message is
this poem
sending to
you, the
China’s One Child Policy
• In 1979,China [was to temporarily] have adopted a law that specified
that you were only allowed to have one child in urban areas
• Millions of people dying of starvation annually because the
population was extremely bigger than the production – too much
competition for limited resources].
• China adopted this law because China needed to limit the
population growth – current pop. 1.4 billion
• In rural areas you can try for another child.
• If a couple both do not have siblings, they may try to have two
• If you broke this law then you were fined a lot of money. Rich people
were able to pay the fine and keep the child.
– No Bill of Rights to protect you from unfair bail and punishment
– They are a Communist region – the government controls all
areas of their lives. The people have no say.
• Boys were wanted.
– Name
– Take care of elderly parents financially in the future
• Girls were abandoned or even left along the road side.
– Never to know their mothers
• Girls were “like pouring precious water out of a basin” = a waste.
• Families of girls must pay dowries to the groom’s family when they
are married.
• The shortage of women has left some men unable to marry and
have a family
• This law was to end in 2010 , but it has not.
• Prevented about 300 million births
According to law,a woman can only
give birth once. So, some years ago,
Jiao Na got pregnant and gave birth to a son,
Bei Bei.
And then a few minutes later she had a
daughter, Jin Jin, then another son,
Huan Huan, a second daughter, Ying Ying, and
finally another girl, Ni Ni.
She and her husband beat China's onechild policy by having quintuplets.
But life has not been easy for them. Their
small farm does not bring in much money. They
have had to give Ying Ying to a relative because
they cannot afford to raise all five children on
their own. They managed to beat China's
• Orphanages raise the children.
• There are also a great deal of older children (boys and girls) whose families couldn't
afford them and are forced to give them up - rather than have them starve to death.
• A number of children are abandoned because they have disabilities that the family
doesn't have the resources to deal with.
• Many families live in absolute poverty, and while the kids (usually girls) aren't given up,
they may have had a better life if they were.
China’s One Child Policy
REFORMED [changed]