Introduction to the Structure and Organization of the Executive Branches The United States Constitution created a federal government with three distinct branches--the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. State and local governments also separate the powers of government among three branches. ***** In this unit, we will examine the structure, organization and authority of the Executive Branches. Study the chart below. Notice the similarities between the National Executive and Maryland Executive Branches. National Executive Branch The President Vice President President's Cabinet Federal Departments and Agencies Federal Bureaucracy Ambassadors Maryland Executive Branch Governor Lieutenant Governor Governor's Cabinet State Departments and Agencies State Bureaucracy We will discuss the Federal (National) Executive Branch in this lesson. Later in this unit, we will discuss the Maryland Executive Branch. Activity 1 Part 1 What Offices are in the Federal Executive Branch? Federal Executive Branch The Executive Branch is made up of people, agencies and organizations that help the president carry out the laws. At the national level, the president is the chief executive and head of the executive branch. The president and vice president are elected to carry out or enforce the laws made by Congress. The vice president can be a key player in the executive office of the president. The vice president is next in line for the presidency in case of death or incapacitation. The vice president is also the President of the Senate and casts a vote when the Senate is deadlocked in a tie. There are 3 components to the Federal Executive Branch. These are the Executive Office of the President, the Executive Departments, and the independent and regulatory agencies. The Executive Office of the President The Executive Office of the President (EOP) is made up of individuals and agencies that directly assist the President. It includes the National Security Counsel (NSC) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The White House Office is made up of a small group of advisors working directly with the President on day-to-day matters. It includes the Chief of Staff and White House Counsel. Currently, there are about 3,000 staff members in the EOP. The Government Bureaucracy Although the President is the head of the executive branch, he must depend on thousands of advisors and other employees to carry out the responsibilities of the office. These people make up the bureaucracy, the organization of government departments, agencies and offices. The President uses the bureaucracy, the executive departments and agencies, to help maintain order and protect the safety of our nation. For example, the Department of Defense manages the military forces to protect the United States. The Department of Homeland Security was created after the September 11, 2001 attack to develop plans to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) works to control the spread of infectious diseases such as AIDS, flu, and tuberculosis. The Environmental Protection Agency works to protect clean air and water for citizens. In the past 60 years, the bureaucracy has grown from a few thousand people to over two million people working for the government. Some people feel that the government bureaucracy is too big and too expensive and that we could save millions of tax dollars by getting rid of useless or outdated government agencies. Other people feel that the bureaucracy has got to increase to handle the increase in population and continue to add more governmental services. They believe that as our country's needs change, the federal government must be ready to meet these needs. Activity 1 Part 2: The Cabinet and Executive Departments There are also elected and appointed officials who help and give advice to the president, including the vice president and the cabinet. Members of the president's cabinet are made up of policy advisors, including the heads of the executive departments. The executive departments have the job to help carry out the laws of Congress. These departments do the major work of running the government. ***** President Washington and his cabinet secretaries President Reagan with his Cabinet and Staff The heads of these departments are directly responsible to the president. The head of the executive departments are called secretaries. A secretary, appointed by the president and approved by the Senate, leads each department. You will learn more about the executive departments that make up the cabinet in Part 2 of this activity. Activity 1 Part 3: Federal Executive Departments Now that you know about the structure of the Federal executive branch, we will look closer at the individual departments that make up the cabinet. The chart below lists the 15 executive departments of the cabinet. ***** DEPARTMENTS FUNCTIONS 1. Agriculture http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/u sdahome 2. Commerce http://www.commerce.gov/ Manages national forests Assists farmers and ranchers Administers food stamp and school lunch programs Inspects food Conducts census Grants patents and registers trademarks Promotes international trade economic growth, and technological development AGENCIES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT Food and Nutrition Service Food Safety and Inspection Service Forest Service Bureau of Census Patent and Trade 3. Defense http://www.defenselink.mil/ Provides military forces to deter war and protect the nation’s security 4. Education http://www.ed.gov/index.jhtml Administers Federal Aid to Schools Conducts educational research Promotes production of renewable energy, fossil fuels, and nuclear energy. Transmits and sells hydroelectric power Funds health care research programs Conducts programs to prevent and control disease Enforces pure and drug laws 5. Energy http://www.energy.gov/engine/co ntent.do 6. Health and Human Services http://www.os.dhhs.gov/ Joint Chiefs of Staff Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force Office of Elementary and Secondary Research Office of Energy and Renewable Energy Regional Power Administration Food and Drug Administration (FDA) National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Health and Human Services) 7. Homeland Security http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/ Administers Medicare and Medicaid Border and transportation security Emergency preparedness and response Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear defense Information analysis and infrastructure protection 8. Housing and Urban Development http://www.hud.gov/ 9. Interior http://www.doi.gov/index.html Operates public housing programs Enforces Fair Housing Laws Manages public lands, wildlife refuges, and national parks Operates hydroelectric power plants Helps Native Americans manage their affairs Prosecutes those accused of violating federal law Provides legal advice to President Represents United States in court 10. Justice http://www.usdoj.gov/ 11. Labor http://www.dol.gov/ 12. State http://www.state.gov/ Enforces federal laws on minimum wages, maximum work hours and safe working conditions. Operates job training programs Administers unemployment insurance and worker’s compensation programs. Advises President on foreign policy Negotiates agreements with foreign countries Represents the United States abroad and in international organizations Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Coast Guard Secret Service Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement Transportation Security Administration Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Indian Affairs National Park Services U.S. Geological Survey Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Drug Enforcement Administration Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) Civil Rights Division Bureau of Prisons Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHA) Bureau of Labor Statistics Foreign Service Bureau of consular Affairs (Office of Passport Services) 13. Transportation http://www.dot.gov/ 14. Treasury http://www.ustreas.gov/ 15. Veteran’s Affairs http://www.va.gov/ Administers and programs to promote and regulate highways, mass transit, railroads, waterways, air travel, and oil and gas pipelines Produces coins and bills Borrows money and manages public debt Enforces alcohol, tobacco, and firearms laws Collect taxes Administers benefits, pensions, and medical programs for veterans of the armed forces Oversees Military Cemeteries Federal Highway Administration Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Internal Revenue Service (IRS) United States Mint Bureau of Engraving and Printing Veterans Benefits Administration (VA) Activity 1 Part 4: Independent and Regulatory Agencies The executive branch also consists of many independent and regulatory agencies and commissions. Independent and Regulatory Agencies There are over 2000 independent and regulatory agencies in the executive branch. These are the ones that you must know. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Communication Commission (FCC) Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) The independent and regulatory agencies were created to set rules and enforce regulations on businesses and industries, which affect the public welfare. Examples of these agencies and commissions in the executive branch include the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the Federal Aviation Association (FAA), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The names of the major federal regulatory agencies are probably familiar to you. In fact, the name of the agency is often a clue to its purpose. Regulatory agencies enforce laws about health and safety, consumer protection, and environmental protection. These agencies and their major purposes include: Federal Communications Commissions (FCC) - Regulates television, radio, telegraph, and telephone; grants broadcast licenses, creates and enforces rules of behavior for broadcasting For more information about the FCC, visit:http://www.fcc.gov/aboutus.html Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) - Regulates civil aviation, air traffic and piloting standards, and air commerce For more information about the FAA, visit: http://www.faa.gov/about/mission/activities/ Federal Trade Commission (FTC) - Regulates product warranties, unfair methods of competition in interstate commerce, and fraud in advertising For more information about the FTC, visit: http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/index.shtml Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Develops and enforces environmental standards for air, water, and toxic waste For more information about the EPA, visit: http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm#whatwedo Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - Regulates purity and safety of foods, drugs, and cosmetics For more information about the FDA, visit: http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/fda101/fda101text.html Examples of regulatory agencies and commissions that are contained within the executive departments include the Internal Revenue Service, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Federal Aviation Association (FAA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Agencies exercise a blend of legislative, executive and judicial powers, by proposing and enacting rules, carrying them out and enforcing them. These powers are limited. Federal courts can overturn a regulatory action if it does not follow the law the agency is supposed to enforce. Congress can also change the law under which an agency operates. Activity 2: Problems in Society and Government Response Pollution of the air or water is an example of an issue to which the government responds. Because it will benefit society as a whole, federal, state, and/or local governments step in to help solve problems like air pollution. This is done by creating regulations and regulatory policies. These policies are carried out through regulatory agencies. The United States is a mixed economy where decisions are made by producers and consumers. A factory may make a product and in the process pollutes the water around the factory or pollutes the air. Trees or wildlife near the factory may die. There are costs of this pollution to society. For example, residents in the area may develop allergies due to the air pollution. may be annoyed by the smell from the factory. may dislike the extra traffic and congestion from the additional factory workers. The extra costs associated with the factory are the responsibility of the government- rather than individuals. Regulatory agencies may use tax breaks or fines to encourage businesses to help solve problems. The executive and legislative branches work together to pass and enforce laws related to these problems.