Chapter 9 Section 3

Chapter 9 Section 3 “Fermentation”
Chemical pathways that need oxygen are called aerobic. (Krebs cycle and
Electron Transport Chain)
Chemical pathways that do not need oxygen are called anaerobic.
Products of Glycolysis:
What happens when oxygen is not present after glycolysis?
When oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by fermentation.
There are two types of fermentation:
1) Alcoholic Fermentation
2) Lactic Acid Fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation Equation:
Pyruvic Acid + NADH  Alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Alcoholic fermentation is used in bread, in order for the bread to rise.
 When yeast cells un out of oxygen, the dough begins to give off
bubbles of carbon dioxide.
 The bubbles are the air spaces you see in a slice of bread.
 The small amount of alcohol made in the dough evaporates when
the bread is baked.
Lactic Acid Fermentation Equation:
Pyruvic Acid + NADH  Lactic acid + NAD+
Quick Energy vs Long-Term Energy
ATP is our short-term energy.
Example: at the beginning of a race, muscles have only enough for the first
few minutes of activity. By the 50 meter mark, that store of ATP is gone.
When the ATP is gone, we seek ATP by lactic acid fermentation, which gives
us enough for about 90 seconds.
Long-Term Energy:
After 90 seconds, your body stores energy in the form of carbohydrate
glycogen. This storage is good for an additional 15-20 minutes. After that,
your body begins to breakdown fat and other stored molecules for energy.
Quick Energy: we use our stored ATP, followed by ATP produced by lactic
acid fermentation.
 Downside: lactic acid build up
Long Term Energy: we use carbohydrate glycogen followed by breakdown of
fats, etc.
Chapter 8 Quiz Review
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Difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
Function of chloroplasts. What is chlorophyll? What are the thylakoids?
Stroma? Grana?
Equation of Photosynthesis. Words and Symbols.
Difference between light-dependent and light-independent reactions.
Location, reactants, products?
Factors affecting photosynthesis.
12/2/2015 5:09:00 AM