Otitis Media & Sinusitis

Otitis Media &
Diego Martinez
Sergio Serna
Alan Acevedo
Angel Mafnas
Types of Otitis Media
• Acute otitis media (AOM)
• Is classified as the first symptoms to show an ear infection.
Mostly found in younger children.
• Otitis media with effusion (OME)
• There is no ear infection but there is a thick or sticky fluid behind
the eardrum.
• Chronic suppurative otitis media
• Inflammation of the middle ear or the eardrum might be
perforated due to fluid in the middle ear.
• Adhesive otitis media
• This occurs when the eardrum gets sucked in deeper in to the
middle ear space and gets stucked.
Otitis Media
• inflammation of the ear, usually distinguished as otitis externa
• Causes- An ear infection is usually caused by bacteria or viruses that get into the body
through the nose and mouth. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae
and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most frequently isolated pathogens in patients with
acute otitis media .
• More than 80 percent of children have at least one episode of otitis media by the
time they are 3 years of age.
Otitis Media
Otitis Media
• Transmission
• AOM is transmitted by airborne spread of the causative infectious agents in
droplets, sprayed into the air when a sick person coughs or sneezes. The
infection in the new host usually begins with a common cold, sore throat or
measles. The presence of certain risk factors makes babies and young
children more vulnerable to developing AOM.
Tests and diagnosis
Pneumatic Otoscope- The doctor will likely use a lighted
instrument to look at the ears, throat and nasal passage. He or she will also
listen to your child breathe with a stethoscope.
Additional tests- Your doctor may perform other diagnostic
tests if there is any doubt about a diagnosis, if the condition hasn't responded
to previous treatments, or if there are other persistent or serious problems.
Children•Ear pain, especially when lying down
•Tugging or pulling at an ear
•Difficulty sleeping
•Crying more than usual
•Acting more irritable than usual
•Difficulty hearing or responding to sounds
Ear pain, especially when lying down
Tugging or pulling at an ear
Difficulty sleeping
Crying more than usual
Acting more irritable than usual
Difficulty hearing or responding to sounds
• Prevent common colds and other illnesses: Teach your children
to wash their hands frequently and thoroughly and to not share
eating and drinking utensils. Avoid secondhand smoke
• Talk to your doctor about vaccinations: Ask your doctor
about what vaccinations are appropriate for your child.
Seasonal flu shots and pneumococcal vaccines may help
prevent ear infections.
Most ear infections resolve without treatment with antibiotics. What's
best for your child depends on many factors, including your child's age
and the severity of symptoms.
Children 6 months and older with moderate to severe ear pain in one or
both ears for at least 48 hours or a temperature of 102.2 F or higher.
• Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses. It
occurs as a result from an infection from a virus,
bacteria, or fungus.
• Sinusitis is a upper respiratory infection.
• It effects a organ in the nose.
• Sinuses are spaces in our skull filled with air.
• Mucus sometimes drains into the sinuses and cleans them out.
• When this spaces become blocked, bacteria or other
organisms can grow easily.
• This can happen when:
• Cilia in the sinuses fail to remove mucus.
• Colds and allergies can cause too much mucus to get stuck in the
• A deviated nasal septum, nasal bone spur, or nasal polyps may
block the opening of the sinuses.
• There are two types of Sinusitis:
• Acute sinusitis
• Symptoms show in 4 weeks or less. It is caused because of bacteria
growing in the sinuses.
• Chronic sinusitis
• Swelling and inflammation of the sinuses are present for longar than
3 months. It may be caused by bacteria or fungi.
• Common in both children and adults.
• Sinusitis is common in the US, reporting between 24 to 31 million
cases annually.
• Sinusitis is not contagious. But the bacteria or organism that
can cause a blockage in the sinuses can be transmitted.
• The symptoms of acute sinusitis follow a cold that doesn´t get
better or even gets worse. The symptoms are:
Bad breath or loss of smell
Cough, often worse at night
Fatigue and general feeling of being ill
Headache -- pressure-like pain, pain behind the eyes, toothache, or tenderness of
the face
• Nasal stuffiness and discharge
• Sore throat and postnasal drip
• Symptoms of chronic sinusitis are the same as those of acute
sinusitis, but tend to be milder and last longer than 12 weeks.
• Symptoms of sinusitis in children include:
• Cold or respiratory illness that has been getting better and then
begins to get worse
• High fever, along with a darkened nasal discharge, that lasts for at
least 3 days
• Nasal discharge, with or without a cough, that has been present
for more than 10 days and is not improving
• The doctor will examine the patient for sinusitis by:
• Looking in the nose for signs of polyps
• Shining a light against the sinus for signs of inflammation
• Tapping over a sinus area to find infection
• Viewing the sinuses through a nasal endoscopy may help diagnose
• Imaging tests that may be used to decide on treatment are:
• CT scan
• If the patient has sinusitis that does not go away or keeps returning,
other tests may include:
Allergy testing
Blood tests for HIV or other tests for poor immune function
Ciliary function test
Nasal culture
• To help reduce congestion in your sinuses, you can:
• Apply a warm, moist washcloth to your face several times a day.
• Drink plenty of fluids to thin the mucus.
• Inhale steam 2 - 4 times per day
• To prevent sinus pain:
• Avoid flying when you are congested.
• Avoid temperature extremes, sudden changes in temperature,
and bending forward with your head down.
• Most of the time, Acute sinusitis infection doesn´t need
medication. It heals on its own. Antibiotic can still be used but
will only reduce the time it takes the infection to go away.
• The best way to avoid Sinusitis infections is to:
Avoid colds and flu.
Eat healthy.
Get vaccine againts influenza each year.
Wash your hands often.
Don´t stress out.
• http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/earinfections/basics/prevention/con-20014260
• http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/994656-treatment
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