Honors Biology I * EOC study guide


Honors Biology I – EOC study guide

Embedded Inquiry – What tools, skills, knowledge and dispositions are needed to conduct scientific inquiry?

SPI 1 – Select a description or scenario that reevaluates and/or extends a scientific finding.

SPI 2 – Analyze the components of a properly designed scientific investigation.

SPI 3 – Determine appropriate tools to gather precise and accurate data.

Name each and tell what each could be used for.

SPI 4 – Evaluate the accuracy and precision of data.

Accuracy describes how close a measured value is to the ___________ value of the quantity measured

Precision refers to the degree of __________ with which a measurement is made and stated. (precision describes the limitations of the measuring instrument)

SPI 5 – Defend a conclusion based on scientific evidence.

SPI 6 – Determine why a conclusion is free of bias.

A synonym of bias is prejudice….you want experimental results to be free of prejudiced opinion.

SPI 7 – Compare conclusions that offer different, but acceptable explanations for the same set of experimental data.

Embedded Technology and Engineering – How do science concepts, engineering skills, and applications of technology improve the quality of life?

SPI 1 – Distinguish among tools and procedures best suited to conduct a specified scientific inquiry.

What are the 5 parts of experimental design (scientific method)? Do you know what each means? (p. 8)






SPI 2 – Evaluate a protocol to determine the degree to which an engineering design process was successfully applied.

Design analysis – The design analysis process is a methodical approach that is used by engineers, architects, and designers to solve problems. Most designers use some process for problem solving. Most of the processes are based on a logical system of experimentation, data gathering, and record keeping. The design process is often based on consumer demand for the product. A typical design analysis process has these elements:


problem identification – identify all that is known about the problem (historical and background info., economic requirements, manufacturing or construction processes available, and market info.; list known limitations and specify the desirable features)


preliminary ideas – record all ideas in notes, written descriptions, and sketches – these may be originals or modifications


refinement – the designer takes several preliminary ideas and reduces them to two or three that are the best; these ideas are then refined with more detail. Preliminary drawings often have the major dimensions, physical properties, shape, and weight characteristics.


analysis – the analysis of the problem is a very important part of the design process. After the designer chooses the best ideas, he is ready to consider cost, strength, function, etc. Testing and data collection help determine the best results (design). Physical properties like material, shape, size, color or texture are also considered.


decision – selecting the best design may be a joint decision between a team of designers, engineers, and manufacturing or construction leaders. Positives and negatives are considered.


implementation – formal drawings are made, specifications are written and the product is manufactured…in some cases a prototype is made for final testing before being released for mass production.

SPI 3 – Evaluate the overall benefit to cost ratio of a new technology.

A BCR is the ratio of the benefits of a project or proposal, expressed in monetary terms, relative to its costs, also expressed in monetary terms.

In its simplest form, benefit cost ratio is a figure that is used to define the value of a project versus the money that will be spent in doing the project in the overall assessment of a cost-benefit analysis.

To create a benefit cost ratio example we’ll use Widget Corp. as our fictitious business. Widget Corporation’s top account executive has an idea for a new widget that will revolutionize the widget industry. The total cost to plan, develop and produce the widget is $55,000. Once the production line has been set up, the revolutionary widget sells like hotcakes and produces record net profits for Widget Corp. of $500,000 for the year. Using the formula listed above, we can figure the benefit cost ratio. 500,000/55,000 = 9.09 The final outcome of $9.09 is the dollar representation of a $9.09 return for every $1.00 invested in the revolutionary widget. After one year of sales, the revolutionary widget paid for itself almost ten times.

SPI 4 – Use design principles to determine how a new technology will improve the quality of life for an intended audience. ethics/ethical –

Independent Research companies should be employed to validate test data to avoid bias.

Embedded Mathematics – What mathematical skills and understandings are needed to successfully investigate biological topics?

SPI 1 – Interpret a graph that depicts a biological phenomenon. PAY ATTENTION TO THE LABELS ON THE X AND Y


On which dates were the temperature the highest? What was the average temperature for this time period? Convert 16 degrees

Celsius to Fahrenheit degrees. (C x 9/5 + 32)

Which year shows the least profit?

What types of growth are illustrated by these graphs? What does “K” represent on the second graph?

What is the favorite soda? What is the least favorite soda? What is your favorite soda?

Describe the relationship between these animals with regard to change in population numbers.

What causes the line to go down in this population graph?

(think birth rate and death rate)

SPI 2 – Predict the outcome of a cross between parents of known genotype.

1) A blue-eyed (bb) woman marries a brown-eyed (Bb) man. Draw a Punnett square that shows the possibilities for children.

What percentage will be blue-eyed? What percentage will be brown-eyed?

2) Woody Guthrie died of Huntington's chorea, a dominant autosomal disease. His wife's genotype was “hh” and his was “Hh”.

Draw a Punnett square and show the probability that his children may have the disease.

Can you change fractions into percentages??????

Biology I: Standard I – Cells – How are cells organized to carry on the processes of life?

SPI 1 – Identify the cellular organelles associated with major cell processes. (p. 174)

Organelle/Cell part Location Function


Surrounds the nucleus


Cytoplasm and on ER

Condenses – forms chromosomes

Golgi apparatus



Plant cells

Plant cells

Assembles lipids and exports other materials

Storage of water, salts, proteins and carbs



SPI 2 – Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

SPI 3 – Distinguish among proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Label these molecules. What is a function or purpose of each? Which ones can store energy for longer than just a few minutes?

Starches break down into simple sugars…..(monomers/polymers)

SPI 4 - Identify positive tests for carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

______________________________ is an indicator for the presence of starch.

______________________________ is an indicator for the presence of protein.

______________________________ is an indicator for the presence of fats/lipids.

______________________________ is an indicator for the presence of sugar.

SPI 5 – Identify how enzymes control chemical reactions in the body. (p. 51)

Catalyst –

Enzyme –

Substrate –

Activation energy –

SPI 6 – Determine the relationship between cell growth and cell reproduction.

What are the parts of the cell cycle and what happens in each?





a. b. c. d


1-3 combined make up _______________ which is the _________________ part of the cell cycle.

4a and 4b together are cell _______________.

This type of cell division results in _____ diploid cells. They are _____________ to the parent cell. If a cell’s diploid number is

12 it’s haploid number is _________. These numbers refer to the number of _________________ in the nucleus.

Cytokinesis (Cytoplasmic Division). The basic point of cytokinesis is to divide the cytoplasm of the original cell such that each of the nuclei from mitosis gets roughly equal amounts of cytoplasm and the organelles each new cell needs. Cytokinesis is different for plant and animal cells. In plant cells a so called cell plate forms roughly equidistant between the ends of the old cell.

This cell plate consists of new cell membranes for each new cell. Between these membranes the cell walls for each cell are laid down.

What helps a cell avoid becoming too big?

SPI 7 – Predict the movement of water and other molecules across selectively permeable membranes. ( p. 182)

Concentration (of solution) –

Diffusion –

Equilibrium –

Osmosis –

Isotonic –

Hypertonic –

Hypotonic –

Permeable –

What is this a drawing of? ____________________________ ( it regulates what enters and leaves the cell) Label the parts indicated.

The arrows indicate the movement of __________.

What happens to a red blood cell placed in pure water?

SPI 8 – Compare and contrast active and passive transport.

Active transport –

Passive transport –

Concentration gradient –

Facilitated Diffusion/Passive transport

Facilitated diffusion involves the use of a protein to facilitate the movement of molecules across the membrane. In some cases, molecules pass through channels within the protein. In other cases, the protein changes shape, allowing molecules to pass through. Additional energy is not required because the molecule is traveling down a concentration gradient (high concentration to low concentration). The energy of movement comes from the concentration gradient.

Active Transport

Active transport is used to move ions or molecules against a concentration gradient (low concentration to high concentration). Movement against a concentration gradient requires energy. The energy is supplied by ATP which is released by breaking a phosphate bond to produce


ADP + P i

+ energy The Sodium-Potassium Pump The sodium-potassium pump uses active transport to move 3 sodium ions to the outside of the cell for each 2 potassium ions that it moves in. It is found in all human cells, especially nerve and muscle cells.

One third of the body’s energy expenditure is used to operate the sodium-potassium pump.

One phosphate bond in the ATP molecule breaks, releasing its energy to the pump protein. The pump protein changes shape, releasing the sodium ions to the outside. The two potassium binding sites are also exposed to the outside, allowing two potassium ions to enter the pump.

When the phosphate group detaches from the pump, the pump returns to its original shape. The two potassium ions leave and three sodium ions enter. The cycle then repeats itself.

Biology I: Standard 2 – Interdependence – How do living things interact with one another and with the non-living environment?

SPI 1 – Predict how population changes of organisms at different trophic levels affect an ecosystem. (p. 70) [cause and effect]

Producers –

Consumers –

Decomposers –

Heterotroph –

Autotroph –

Predator/prey relationship –

Trophic level –

Interdependence –

Mutualism –

Commensalism –

Parasitism –

Symbiosis –

What are the three types of ecological pyramids and what do they illustrate?

How does the available energy change as you move up on an energy pyramid?

SPI 2 – Interpret the relationship between environmental factors and fluctuations in population size. (p.124)

Limiting factor –

Density-dependent limiting factor –

Density-independent limiting factor –

What are examples of these limiting factors?

SPI 3 – Determine how the carrying capacity of an ecosystem is affected by interactions among organisms. (p. 122)

Logistic growth –

Exponential growth –

Carrying capacity –

SPI 4 – Predict how various types of human activities affect the environment. (p. 139)

Hunting and gathering –

Agriculture –

Industrial growth and urban development –

Renewable and non renewable resources –

Deforestation –

Over fishing –

Pollution –

Acid rain – pH –

What is the best tool to use for an accurate pH value?

SPI 5 – Make inferences about how a specific environmental change can affect the amount of biodiversity. (p. 150)

Biodiversity –

What are some threats to biodiversity? (p. 151)

Habitat fragmentation –

Biological magnification –

Invasive species –

More biodiversity yields more adaptability….

How can biodiversity be increased?

SPI 6 – Predict how a specific environmental change may lead to the extinction of a particular species.

Extinction –

Endangered species –

SPI 7 - Analyze factors responsible for the changes associated with biological succession. (p. 94)

Ecological succession –

Primary succession –

Pioneer species –

Secondary succession –

There are 11 major biomes. Each is defined by a unique set of abiotic factors – particularly climate – and a characteristic assemblage of plants and animals. (p. 99) Take a quick look at the biomes (p. 100).

Abiotic –

Biotic –

Biology I: Standard 3 – flow of Matter and Energy – What are the scientific explanations for how matter cycles and energy flows through the biosphere?

SPI 1 – Interpret a diagram that illustrates energy flow in an ecosystem.

What do the arrows tell you?

SPI 2 – Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. (p. 226)

Aerobic respiration –

Anaerobic respiration –

Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation –

SPI 3 – Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy transformation. (p. 232)

Complete the table:

Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration






What is the energy source for photosynthesis?

What is the energy source for cellular respiration?

How are these processes similar?

How are these processes different?

SPI 4 – Predict how changes in a biogeochemical cycle can affect an ecosystem. (p.74)

What are the 4 biogeochemical cycles?

Nutrients –

Nitrogen fixation –

Denitrification –

Primary productivity –

Limiting nutrient –

Biology I: Standard 4 – Heredity – What are the principal mechanisms by which living things reproduce and transmit hereditary information from parents to offspring?

SPI 1 - Identify the structure and function of DNA. (p. 294)

What do you call the first structure (think spiral staircase)?

What does the second figure mean to you?

What is the primary function of DNA?

What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? (p. 47)

SPI 2 – Associate the process of DNA replication with its biological significance. (p. 299)

What is the product of DNA replication?

SPI 3 – Recognize the interactions between DNA and RNA during protein synthesis. (p. 304)

What processes are shown in this illustration?

How many possible codons are there?

How many amino acids are there?

A chain of amino acids make a ______________.

Name the 3 types of RNA. Do you know what role each plays in protein synthesis???

Where is your DNA?

G-A-T-T-A-C-A is the strand provided…what would the complementary strand look like?

Transcription > Translation > Amino acid chain > Protein

DNA has thymine, RNA has ________________.

SPI 4 – Determine the probability of a particular trait in an offspring based on the genotype of the parents and the particular mode of inheritance. (p. 268)

Homozygous –

Heterozygous –

Dominant –

Recessive –

Genotype –

Phenotype –

I remember Incomplete Dominance in the form of an example like so:

RED Flower x WHITE Flower ---> PINK Flower

With incomplete dominance , a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes produces offspring with a third phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits. First let me point out that the meaning of the prefix "co-" is


Cooperate = work together. Coexist = exist together. Cohabitate = habitat together.

Let's say that in seals, the gene for the length of the whiskers has two alleles. The dominant allele (W) codes long whiskers & the recessive allele (w) codes for short whiskers.

1) What percentage of offspring would be expected to have short whiskers from the cross of two long-whiskered seals, one parent is homozygous dominant and the other one is heterozygous?

2) If one parent seal is pure long-whiskered and the other is short-whiskered, what percent of offspring would have short whiskers?

SPI 5 – Apply pedigree data to interpret various modes of genetic inheritance. (p. 342)

What does the symbol for a “carrier” look like?

Sex-linked inheritance -

Autosomal inheritance –

SPI 6 – Describe how meiosis is involved in the production of egg and sperm cells. (p. 276)

Homologous –

Diploid –

Haploid –

Meiosis –

Tetrad –

Crossing-over –

Gamete –

Sister chromatids –

SPI 7 – Describe how meiosis and sexual reproduction contribute to genetic variation in a population. (p. 276)

SPI 8 – Determine the relationship between mutations and human genetic disorders. (p. 307) and (p. 344)

Mutations -

Point mutations –

Frameshift mutations –

Nondisjunction -

SPI 9 – Evaluate the scientific and ethical issues associated with gene technologies: genetic engineering, cloning, transgenic organism production, stem cell research, and DNA fingerprinting. (p. 327)

Ethical/ethics –

What are some benefits of genetic manipulation?

Biology I: Standard 5 – Biodiversity and Change – How does natural selection explain how organisms have changed over time?

SPI 1 - Compare and contrast the structural, functional, and behavioral adaptations of animals or plants found in different environments. (p. 380)

Adaptation –

Natural selection –

Homologous structures –

Common descent –

ALL vertebrate limbs are put together this way, regardless of their use. Clearly there is no analogous similarity between a bat's wing and a horse's leg, and the extreme difference in uses of the two makes the underlying similarity seem unusual. These types of similarity are called homologous and are very interesting indeed.

SPI 2 – Recognize the relationship between form and function in living things.

SPI 3 - Recognize the relationships among environmental change, genetic variation, natural selection, and the emergence of a new species. (p. 386)

Darwin’s process of natural selection has four components.


Variation. Organisms (within populations) exhibit individual variation in appearance and behavior. These variations may involve body size, hair color, facial markings, voice properties, or number of offspring. On the other hand, some traits show little to no variation among individuals—for example, number of eyes in vertebrates.


Inheritance. Some traits are consistently passed on from parent to offspring. Such traits are heritable, whereas other traits are strongly influenced by environmental conditions and show weak heritability.


High rate of population growth. Most populations have more offspring each year than local resources can support leading to a struggle for resources. This struggle creates competition for resources. Each generation experiences substantial mortality.


Differential survival and reproduction. Individuals possessing traits well suited for the struggle for local resources will contribute more offspring to the next generation.

SPI 4 – Describe the relationship between the amount of biodiversity and the ability of a population to adapt to a changing environment. (p. 151)

Biodiversity –

SPI 5 – Apply evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, amino acid sequences, and DNA structure that support modern classification systems.

Fossil record –

Comparative anatomy –

Cladogram –

Binomial nomenclature –

Divergent evolution –

Convergent evolution –

 Earth’s early atmosphere had no free oxygen. The first atmosphere was probably H


, He. The second atmosphere was made of gases produced, similar to those created by modern volcanoes (H




, SO


, CO, S


, Cl


, N


, H


) and NH


(ammonia) and CH


(methane) No free O


at this time (not found in volcanic gases).

SPI 6 – Infer relatedness among different organisms using modern classification systems. (p.460-461)

Dichotomous key –

Do the dichotomous key activity on page 462.

What are the 7 levels of classification?

Can you read a chart to determine which organisms are most closely related?

Can you read DNA fingerprints to determine a solution to a given problem?

Other terms: aortic, amphibian, generic, impact, unavoidable, values, vertebrate, invertebrate, chordate, endotherms, variable

(controlled and manipulated), isolation, archaeocytees, herbicide, pesticide, DDT