The World of Earth Science

The World of Earth
Chapter 1
Section 1
Branches of Earth Science
• Objectives
– Describe the four major branches of Earth
– Identify four examples of Earth science that
are linked to other areas of science
Geology – Science That Rocks
• The study of the origin, history, and
structure of the Earth and the processes
that shape the Earth is called _______.
• A geologist who studies fossils is called a
• A geologist who studies earthquakes is
called a ___________.
• A geologist who studies volcanoes is
called a ___________.
Oceanography- Water, Water
• Studies plants and
animals that live in the
• Studies amounts and
distributions of natural
and human-made
chemicals in the ocean
• Studies waves and ocean
currents to see how the
affect weather patterns
and aquatic life
• Studies the ocean floor
for clues about Earth’s
• Biological
• Chemical Oceanographer
• Physical Oceanographer
• Geological
• Today,
oceanographers use
miniature submarines
to explore the ocean
• Rock chimneys on the
ocean floor that spew
black clouds are
called black smokers.
Meteorology-It’s a Gas!
• Why did fewer people die during Hurricane
Andrew than during the similar storm that
hit Florida in 1928?
– Hurricane tracking and weather forecasting
• Why do meteorologists like Howard
Bluestein chase tornadoes?
– To help predict how a tornado will behave
Astronomy-Far, Far, Away
• One type of instrument
astronomers use is called
a ______
Optical ________.
• _____
_________ are
Radio telescopes
used to study objects that
do not give off light.
• Astronomers can learn
about bodies in space by
studying the patterns
formed from
radio waves in space
sun is the closest
• The ____
star to the Earth.
Special Branches of Earth Science
• The study of how humans interact with the environment is
known as __________________.
environmental science
• A scientists who studies communities of organisms and their
nonliving environment is called an _________.
• Geochemistry combines the studies of what two areas of
– Geology
– Chemistry
• Scientists who study the Earth’s surface features are
physical geographers
• Scientists who make maps of the Earth’s surface are
Section 2
Scientific Methods in Earth Science
• Objectives
– Explain how scientists begin to learn about
the natural world.
– Explain what scientific methods are and how
scientists use them.
– Identify the importance of communicating the
results of a scientific investigation.
– Describe how scientific investigations often
lead to new investigations.
• How do scientists begin to learn about the
natural world?
– They ask questions
• What is the goal of scientists when they use the
scientific method?
– To come up with reliable answers and solutions
• Steps to the scientific method
Ask a question
Form a Hypothesis
Test the Hypothesis
Analyze the Results
Draw Conclusions
Communicate Results
Case Colsed?
The Scientific Method
Ask a question
• Why do scientists ask
– To focus the purpose
of an investigation
Form a Hypothesis
• What is a hypothesis
– An explanation that is
based on prior
scientific research or
observations and that
can be tested
The Scientific Method
Test the Hypothesis
• How do scientist test hypotheses?
– By gathering data
• An experiment that tests only one factor, or
variable, at a time is a ___________________.
controlled experiment
• What is the purpose of changing only one
variable in an experiment?
– If more than on variable is changes, scientists cannot
easily determine which variable caused the outcome.
The Scientific Method
Analyze the Results
• What do scientists often
do to organized and
summarize their data?
– They often make tables
and graphs
Draw Conclusions
• Why do scientists draw
conclusions about their
– To see if their results
supported their
• What can scientists do if
their tests do not support
their hypothesis?
– They may repeat
investigations to check for
The Scientific Method
Communicate Results
• What do other scientists do after the results of
an investigation are shared?
– Other scientists evaluate the evidence. They also
review the experimental procedure, data, and
explanations. If they disagree, they may further
investigate to find the truth.
Case Closed?
• Why might an investigation continue after its
results are accepted?
Section 3
Scientific Models
• Objectives
– Explain how models are used in science
– Describe the three types of models
– Identify which types of models are best for
certain topics
– Describe the climate model as an example of
a mathematical model
• Model made up of
equations and data
• Model made up of
many hypotheses
• Model that you can
touch and that looks
and acts like a real
• Mathematical Model
• Conceptual Model
• Physical Model
Section Four
Measurement and Safety
• Objectives
– Explain the importance of the International
System of Units
– Determine appropriate units to use for
particular measurements
– Identify lab safety symbols and determine
what they mean
Measurement and Safety
• Long ago, standardized units were based
parts of the body
• Why was the International System of Units
(SI) developed?
– To have a global measurement system
• The unit that
scientists usually use
to describe
• The SI unit for
• The unit that
describes normal
body temperature as
98.6 F
• Degrees Celsius
• Kelvin
• Degrees Fahrenheit