File - Miss Porter History

 Imperialism
 Nationalism
 Militarism
 Alliances
 Assassination
 The
practice of extending
the power, control or rule
by one country over areas
outside its borders. The
areas so controlled or
ruled may be called that
country's empire.
 Many
of the economic causes of the war can
be attributed to a growing material
dependency of advancing European nations
on imperialism.
 Nations such as Great Britain and France
maintained domestic economies and
accumulated great wealth in the late 19th
century through trade, and their control of
foreign resources, markets, territories, and
 As
a late arrival on the world stage, Germany
was locked out of the most valuable colonial
regions in Africa and the Far East.
 In addition, the rapid exhaustion of natural
resources in many European nations began to
slowly upset the trade balance and make
nations more eager to seek new territories
rich in natural resources.
 Rivalries
among the great powers were
intensified starting in the 1880s by the
scramble for colonies which brought much of
Africa and Asia under European rule.
Moroccan Crisis
Germany announced its
support of independence
for Morocco, the African
colony which Britain had
given France in 1904.
The British defended the
French, and war was
avoided by a international
conference in Algeciras in
1906 which allowed
France to make Morocco a
French protectorate.
 Another
Moroccan Crisis
Germany sent a warship to Agadir in protest of French
supremacy in Morocco, claiming the French had
violated the agreement at Algeciras.
Britain again rose to France's defense and gave the
Germans stern warnings. Germany agreed to allow
France a free hand in Morocco in exchange for part of
the French Congo.
 The
causes of the war included such forces
as nationalism, or patriotism.
 Nationalism led European nations to compete
for the largest army and navy, or the greatest
industrial development.
 It also gave groups of subject peoples the
idea of forming independent nations of their
 The
unification of Germany and Italy created
two strong states in Europe where there had
been previously only been a small collection
of states.
 France
was still angry
over the loss of AlsaceLorraine to Germany
following its defeat to
Prussia in the FrancoPrussian War.
Nationalism posed a
problem for AustriaHungary and the Balkans,
areas comprised of many
conflicting national groups.
The ardent Panslavism of
Serbia and Russia's
willingness to support its
Slavic brother conflicted
with Austria-Hungary's PanGermanism.
 Bosnian
Crisis of 1908
Austria-Hungarian annexation of the former
Turkish province of Bosnia in 1908.
The Greater Serbian movement had as an
object the acquisition of Slavic Bosnia, so
Serbia threatened war on Austria-Hungary.
Russia had pledged their support to Serbia, so
they began to mobilize, which caused
Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary, to
threaten war on Russia. The beginning of World
War I was postponed when Russia backed
down, but relations between Austria- Hungary
and Serbia were greatly strained.
 Two
Balkan Wars
First Balkan War (1912)
Second Balkan War (1913)
The wars were an important precursor to WWI,
to the extent that Austria-Hungary took alarm at
the great increase in Serbia's territory and
regional status. This concern was shared by
Germany, which saw Serbia as a satellite of
Russia. Serbia's rise in power thus contributed to
the two Central Powers’ willingness to risk war.
 The
belief or desire of
a government or
people that a country
should maintain a
strong military
capability and be
prepared to use it
aggressively to defend
or promote national
 The
menace of the hostile division led to an
arms race, another cause of World War I.
 Acknowledging that Germany was the leader
in military organization and efficiency, the
great powers of Europe copied the universal
conscription, large reserves and detailed
planning of the Prussian system.
 Armies
and navies were greatly expanded.
The standing armies of France and Germany
doubled in size between 1870 and 1914.
Naval expansion was also extremely
competitive, particularly between Germany and
Great Britain.
 Naval
Arms Race
British had established the
principle that in order to
maintain naval superiority in
the event of war they would
have to have a navy two and
a half times as large as the
second-largest navy.
 This motivated the British to
launch the Dreadnought,
invented by Admiral Sir John
Fisher, in 1906.
As Britain increased
their output of
stepped up their
naval production.
 International rivalry
caused the arms
race to continue to
feed on itself.
very tight web of alliances around the
European nations (many of them requiring
participants to agree to collective defense if
 Treaty
of London, 1839, about the neutrality of
 German-Austrian treaty (1879) or Dual Alliance,
 Italy joining Germany and Austria in 1882,
 Franco-Russian Alliance (1894).
 "Entente" (less formal) between Britain and
France (1904) and Britain and Russia (1907)
forming the Triple Entente.
 Russia proclaiming itself the “Protector of the
Southern Slavs" in the Balkans through several
Europe had reached its
breaking point when on June
28, 1914, Archduke Francis
Ferdinand, heir to the
Austria-Hungarian throne,
was assassinated in Sarajevo,
Bosnia, by a Serbian
nationalist belonging to an
organization known as the
Black Hand.
 The assassin was Gavrilo
 Immediately
following the assassination
Germany pledged its full support (blank
check) to Austria-Hungary, pressuring them
to declare war on Serbia, while France
strengthened its backing of Russia.
 Convinced that the Serbian government had
conspired against them, Austria-Hungary
issued Serbia an unacceptable ultimatum.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July
28, 1914.
 On July 29, Russia ordered a mobilization
against Austria-Hungary in support of Serbia.
 The Germans threatened war on July 31 if the
Russians did not demobilize.
 Upon being asked by Germany what it would do
in the event of a Russo-German War, France
responded that it would act in its own interests
and mobilized.
 On August 1, Germany declared war on Russia,
and two days later, on France. The German
invasion of Belgium to attack France, which
violated Belgium's official neutrality, prompted
Britain to declare war on Germany.
 World War I had begun.