Library Sessions C Tuesday's 11-12 DL203 (Lib 2nd Floor) D Wednesday's 10-11 DLG15 (Lib Ground Floor) B Thursday's 2-3 DLG15 (Lib Ground '') A Friday's 11-12 DLG15 ('' '' '') International Leisure Marketing Mike Morgan D114 595174
What is different about
• Technical – principles, processes, models, tools – universal • Social – relationships with customers, clients, publics, staff, politicians – vary according to culture (Bartels) • Environmental – affecting needs and usage
Three orientations • Ethnocentric – strategies based on home market/culture • Multi-centric – a different strategy for each foreign market • Global-centric – a single strategy for the whole world – if the price and quality are right it will sell anywhere (Levitt 1983)
Do we live in a global village?
Or just a global marketplace?
• Global competition – for local markets • Global brands – with local meanings (Usunier 1996) • Practical v Symbolic functions • Cultural convergence v cultural backlash
What is culture?
• Shared beliefs, values, behaviour • Uniting a group and distinguishing it from others • formed through geography, history, language, race, religion, economics • expressed in arts and sports, social, educational, legal and political systems • Learnt, not inherited. Developing or dying
EuroDisney and Cultural misunderstandings • What is a theme park?
• What is a resort?
• Where do you book a short-break?
• Service • Alcohol Max Weber (1928) The Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism • America For the full case study click here
The key questions • • Why do companies decide to trade abroad?
• How do you assess a potential foreign market?
• What are the key decisions to make in entering that market successfully?
– Market entry strategy – implementation strategy (STP 4Ps)
Feasibility study assignment
seminar presentations report
Sector studies in International Leisure Film, Music, Home-Entertainment, Sport, Tourism • Universal languages or Symbols of national identity?
• Global commodities or Art-forms?
• A case for special treatment?
• Volatility of fashion and demand – need to spread the risk across markets • Dominance of US market and culture
Multimedia convergence Film TV shows sport games and music Content Cable, Satellite and terrestrial Computers 3G phones iTV Processing Transmission Hardware • Content is key to sales, of subscriptions, hardware and merchandise • Multimedia de mergers: AOL Time Warner, Universal Vivendi • Has this approach worked?
Sector studies: key questions • What is the network of organisations in the Value-delivery system? (Kotler 1998) • Who are the leading organisations who control or dominate the market?
• How can a British company survive and prosper in this market?
• • Could the British/EU government help?
Assessed by exam questions
Resources • Terpstra and Sarathy
(2000) International Marketing
Dryden • Hollensen, S (2000)
• • Usunier (1998)
Marketing across Cultures
Prentice Hall http://apollo4.bournemouth.ac.uk/si/mmorgan/index.html