Sensory Memory Sight (iconic) Sound (echoic) George Sperling

Sensory Memory
a. Sight (iconic)
b. Sound (echoic)
c. George Sperling sensory memory study: showed 12 letters for 1/20th
of a second. People could recall about 4-5, but knew they had seen
more. Perhaps memory had faded?
i. After pairing each row with a tone, people were able to
remember those letters. This proves that the information was
accurately stored in sensory memory.
ii. As the length of time between the image and the tone increased
to one second, a decline in memory retention was shown.
d. If sensory memory is not transferred to some other type of memory, it
is lost
Short-Term Memory
a. Here is where information first has meaning.
b. Not exactly clear how sensory transforms into short-term memory,
some hypothesize that it is when sensory stimuli are translated into
images, others theorize into words.
c. Short-term has limitations. George Miller The Magic Number 7 plus
or minus 2. Theory that we can hold seven chunks of meaningful
information at a time. OR 7 letters or numbers
d. Chunk meaningful grouping of a stimuli that can be stored in short
term memory. A chunk varies in meaning
e. Short term lost after 15-25 seconds
f. Rehearsal repetition of information that has entered short-term
i. As information is repeated, it is retained in short term memory,
but may not go into long term memory
ii. Rehearsal allows us to transfer information into long-term
iii. Elaborative rehearsal organization of information. Method
of loci
iv. Mnemonics organizing info in a way that makes it more
likely to be remembered. i.e. ROYGBIV, FACE (music), spring
forward, fall back, Never Eat Shredded Wheat
g. Working Memory a set of temporary memory stores that actively
manipulate and rehearse information
i. Central executive processor-> three storage-and-rehearsal
systems: visual, verbal, episodic.
ii. Working memory allows us to keep information in an active
state so we can do something with the information, i.e. solving
an arithmetic problem.
iii. Working memory aids in recall of information, at a cost. Makes
us less aware of surroundings. Phone conversations leave
people less aware of road. Stress affects memory