Unit 1: Intro to Biology & Biochemistry

Unit 1: Intro to Biology & Biochemistry
Learning Targets:
1. I can apply criteria that scientists use to evaluate the validity of
scientific claims and theories. (SC-H-I-S-6)
Reliability and Validity
The principles of validity and reliability are fundamental
cornerstones of the scientific method.
The idea behind reliability is that any significant results must be
more than a one-time finding and be repeatable. Other
researchers must be able to perform exactly the same
experiment, under the same conditions and generate the
same results. This will reinforce the findings and ensure that
the wider scientific community will accept the hypothesis.
Validity encompasses the entire experimental concept and
establishes whether the results obtained meet all of the
requirements of the scientific research method. For example,
there must have been randomization of the sample groups and
appropriate care and diligence shown in the allocation of
2. I can safely use laboratory equipment and techniques when
conducting scientific investigations. (AE 2.1)
List 2 situations in which goggles must be worn:
a. Using chemicals
b. Open flame and/or heating liquids
3. I can describe the biological criteria that need to be met in order
for an organism to be considered alive. (prior knowledge-SC-4-UDU-1)
Describe 4 characteristics that are essential to living organisms:
a. Cells All organisms are made of one or more cells. Cell is the
basic unit of life.
b. Use Energy Organisms need a source of energy. Some make
their own food with sunlight through photosynthesis. Animals get
energy eating other organisms.
c. Respond to Environment Organisms react to light, temperature,
touch, sound, and other parts of their environment. Ex. Plants
grow toward light.
d. Reproduction and Development Members of a species must be
able to reproduce, or make new organisms. The offspring grow and
develop, through a life cycle, and pass on genetic info (DNA).
4. I can compare the types of bonding between atoms to form
molecules. (SC-HS-1.1.7)
List and describe 3 types of bonding:
a. Ionic Bond: forms between oppositely charged ions that have
lost or gained electrons. Ex. NaCl- table salt
b. Covalent Bond: forms when atoms share a pair of electrons—
forming molecules
Ex. H and O in water molecule are held together by covalent
c. Hydrogen bond: Attraction between slightly positive and
negative polar ends of molecules like water. Causes cohesion in
5. I can define and explain the unique properties of water that are
essential to living organisms. (SC-HS-1.1.5)
Cohesion- The attraction among molecules of the same substance.
Cohesion from hydrogen bonds between water molecules cause
water to stick to other water molecules.
Adhesion- The attraction among molecules of different substances.
Water molecules stick to other things—Capillarity in plants helps
move water from roots to leaves.
High Specific Heat- Hydrogen bonds give water this property.
Water resists changes in temperature, helping cells to maintain
homeostasis ( a stable balance).
6. I can describe the general structure and function(s) of the
carbon compounds. (SC-HS-4.6.5)
(building blocks)
*Main source of
*Structure in cell
wall of plants
Mono- glucose, Lactose-milk
Sucrose-table sugar
Cellulose- dietary fiber
Amino acids
Nucleic Acid
*ENYZMES -Control
Lactase- digests lactose
Bromelain- protease in
Fatty acid
*Long-term energy
storage; *insulation;
*component in cell
Fats, oils, waxes, steroids
*Stores genetic code
*Protein synthesis
7. I can describe the function of enzymes, including how enzymesubstrate specificity works, in biochemical reactions. (SC-HS-3.4.2)
How do enzymes affect biological reactions?
They decrease the __activation_________________________energy
necessary to initiate the chemical change causing the reaction to
speed up.
Describe each step:
1. The substrates are beginning to bind to the enzyme.
2. The enzyme is causing new bonds to form between the
3. The catalyzed reaction is releasing a product.
8. I can design and conduct an experiment. (AE 2.1)
Methods of Scientists
I. The Nature of Scientific Investigation
A. Question
1. Identify a problem.
2. What is it you want to know?
3. Research the problem.
4. Design a test and define the variables
5. State a ___hypothesis________________________a
suggested explanation for an observation.
If…then… statement.
6. Make a prediction.
B. Test/Experimentation: an organized procedure that involves
making measurements and observations.
1. Select a sample.
2. Determine how the variables will be controlled and
measured. Test only
changeable factor
___ variable: the factor that is manipulated by the
b. ___Dependent________________________________
variable: a factor that is affected by the experiment and
c. __Constants_____________________________________
_: factors that do not change in an experiment
d. ______Control________________________________
___: Used in an experiment as comparision to show that
the results are due to the condition being tested.
3. Conduct the experiment. (Remember Lab Safety!)
4. Make accurate observations and measurements.
5. Record the results—Data Table
1. Organize the data using graphs, tables, and charts.
2. Look for trends in the data.
3. Compare the data with the hypothesis and the prediction.
1. Look at the data, make inferences and form conclusions.
2. If data does not support the original hypothesis, reevaluate the hypothesis.
3. Formulate new questions.
9. I can communicate experimental findings/evidence in an
authentic form by writing a formal lab report. (AE 2.2;
Literacy/Writing in Science)