Topic: Midterm Exam Review
Aim: Let’s review for the midterm.
Do Now: Take out ISN HW
HW: Topics to study for the midterm • Scientific Method
• Lab instruments – graduated cylinder, microscope
• Cells – prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic, kingdoms, cell
organization, cell theory, cell respiration, cell parts,
cell transport,
• Human systems – digestive, circulatory, excretory,
respiratory, nervous, endocrine
Scenario 1 – Floor Wax
A shopping mall wanted to determine whether the
more expensive “Tough Stuff” floor wax was better
than the cheaper “Steel Seal” floor wax at protecting
its floor tiles against scratches. One liter of each
brand of floor wax was applied to each of 5 test
sections of the main hall of the mall. The test
sections were all the same size and were covered with
the same kind of tiles. Five (5) other test sections
received no wax. After 3 weeks, the number of
scratches in each of the test sections was counted.
• Problem:
Is “Tough Stuff” floor wax better than “Steel Seal”
floor wax at floor tiles against scratches?
• Hypothesis:
I think that “Tough Stuff” floor wax is better than
“Steel Seal” floor wax at floor tiles against scratches.
• Independent variable: Type of wax
• Dependent variable: Number of scratches
• Control group: Tiles with no floor wax
• Experimental group: Tiles with each type of wax
• 2 controls (constants):
Same kind of tiles, test section same size
Write an observation and an inference based on the
• The penguins
were climbing out
of the water.
• The penguins
were fleeing from
a predator.
• The penguins
were chasing after
Microscopic Measurement Review
1. Draw a ruler in a low power field of view that
measures a diameter of 2.5cm. Label the ruler and
a millimeter mark in your drawing.
2. Draw 5 cells of similar size across a low power field
of view. The diameter of the field of view is
1000um. Write the diameter under your field of
view. Determine the length of one cell and write it
under the diameter.
3. Draw one cell in a low power field of view that has
a length of 300um. The diameter of the field of
view is 1000um. Write this diameter under your
field of view.
Millimeter mark
Millimeter mark
1000/5 =
Identify the structure that focuses
the specimen under high power.
B – fine adjustment
2. Identify the structure that controls
the amount of light reaching the
specimen. F – diaphragm
3. Identify the structure(s) that contain
lenses to magnify the specimen.
A – ocular
D – objective lens
4. Identify the structure that is only
used under low or medium power.
E – course adjustment
5. Calculate the total magnification
when using the objective labeled D.
Ocular x objective
10x x 40x = 400x
Write the equation for aerobic respiration, alcoholic
fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
Aerobic respiration
C6H12O6 + O2 
CO2 +
+ 36ATP
Occurs in the cell organelle called mitochondria.
Occurs in Eukaryotic cells.
Aerobic respiration is very important because it is the
most efficient type of respiration. Energy is needed for
all life processes.
Alcoholic Fermentation
C6H12O6  CO2 +
+ 2ATP
Occurs in the cytoplasm.
Occurs in yeast cells.
Anaerobic respiration is very important because energy
is produced. Energy is needed for all life processes.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
C6H12O6  lactic acid
+ 2ATP
Occurs in the cytoplasm.
Occurs in muscle cells.
Anaerobic respiration is very important because energy
is produced. Energy is needed for all life processes.
Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
• They both have DNA (genetic material).
• They both contain ribosomes.
• Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells
have a nucleus.
• Prokaryotic cells do not membrane-bound organelles.
Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles.
Compare and contrast archaebacteria and
• They do not contain a nucleus (prokaryotic).
• They do not contain membrane-bound organelles.
• Archaebacteria live in extreme environments.
Eubacteria are very common and live in normal
• Archaebacteria are “ancient” bacteria. They have been
around for many years. Eubacteria have not existed for
as long as archaebacteria.
Nuclear membrane
Golgi bodies
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Animal cell
Plant cell
1. Identify each blood vessel labeled in the diagram.
2. Describe a characteristic of each blood vessel.
Most muscular, carry blood away from
heart, pulse, high blood pressure
B of substances
Smallest, thin, exchange
between blood and the body
Not as muscular, carry blood to the heart,
low blood pressure, valves to prevent
backflow of blood
1. Pumps deoxygenated
blood to the lungs.
G - Right ventricle
2. Separates the right and
left side of the heart.
J - Septum
3. Receives oxygenated
blood from the lungs.
F - Left atrium
4. Veins that carry
deoxygenated blood back
to the heart.
B and I – vena cava
5. Aorta A
6. Pumps oxygenated
blood to the rest of the
H – left ventricle
The diagram represents a
microscopic view of blood cells.
1. Identify A, B, C and D and
describe the function of each.
A - WBC Protects body against
disease, produce antibodies
B - Platelet Blood clotting
C - RBC Carries oxygen (hemoglobin)
D - Plasma Carries substances
(everything except oxygen)
3. Identify the most numerous
blood cell. RBC’s
4. Identify where blood cells are
produced. Bone marrow
10. The general pathway of blood in the
body is
a. heart  lungs  body  heart
b. body  lungs  heart  body
c. lungs  heart  lungs  body
d. heart  lungs  heart  body
11. Blood leaves the heart through
a. arteries
b. atria
c. veins
d. capillaries
16. Blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood
to the lungs are known as the
a. aorta
b. pulmonary arteries
c. pulmonary veins d. vena cava
18. Which chamber receives deoxygenated blood
from different body parts?
a. left ventricle
b. right ventricle
c. left atrium
d. right atrium
19. The largest artery in the body that carries
oxygenated blood to the rest of the body is known as
a. vena cava
b. aorta
c. pulmonary artery
d. coronary artery
Identify the process occurring in the diagram.
Support your answer.
Diffusion/passive transport. Molecules of dye
are moving from a high to low concentration.
Passive Transport
No energy required
Substances move
from high to low
Diffusion and
Active Transport
Both involve
of materials
across cell
Both are
to the cell
Energy required
Substances move
from low to high
21. Chemical digestion begins
here. A – oral cavity
22. This structure contains villi. D – Small intestine
23. Reabsorption of water occurs
in this structure. H – Largeintestine
24. The end of digestion for all
foods occurs here. D – Small intestine
25. Peristalsis begins in this
structure. E – Esophagus
26. This is an example of an
accessory organ. B – Liver, C – gall bladder,
G - pancreas
27. This organ contains capillaries
where the diffusion of nutrients
into the blood occurs.
D – Small intestine
20. The immediate result of a blockage to
one ureter would be to
1. limit the ability to store urine
2. prevent the filtering of blood
3. stop the release of urine from the body
4. increase the amount of urine entering
the bladder
21. Which statement about the excretory
system is false?
1. Wastes from the digestive system are
excreted by the excretory system.
2. The liver produces urea.
3. The kidneys regulate the concentration
of substances in the blood.
4. The skin releases water, salt and urea.
2. The change in the size of the pupil is a
a. trait
b. environmental change
c. habitat change
d. reflex
5. An increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the
blood stimulates the respiratory center of the brain. As a
result, impulses are sent from the
a. cerebrum to the chest muscles decreasing breathing
b. medulla to the diaphragm, increasing breathing rate
c. medulla to the trachea, causing it to constrict
d. cerebrum to the alveoli, causing them to actively
transport oxygen
6. The peripheral nervous system
a. is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
b. consists of interneurons.
c. consists of nerves branching off of the
spinal cord.
d. depends only on motor neurons
9. A physiologist removed the pancreas from several
dogs in an experiment to investigate its function. He
placed five normal dogs in one kennel and five dogs
lacking a pancreas another kennel. The physiologist
observed that ants were attracted in large numbers to
the kennel of the dogs lacking a pancreas.
Because they lacked a pancreas, what substances did
these dogs have that attracted the ants?
a. enzymes in their saliva
b. sugar in their urine
c. mineral salts in their feces
d. oil in their fur.
7. What occurs at the synapse?
1. The electrical charge jumps across the synapse to
the dendrites of the next neuron.
2. The terminal branches contact the dendrites of the
next neuron and neurotransmitters are
3. Terminal branches release neurotransmitters into
the synapse and they lock into receptor sites of
receiving dendrites.
4. Scientists are studying the process because the
exact mechanism is unknown.
12. Negative feedback is a process that
a. always reduces the amount of a hormone present
in the blood
b. keeps conditions near their normal state
c. lowers the body temperature below normal
d. None of the above are correct.
14. Produces hormones that
regulate the ovaries A
15. Produces an iodinecontaining hormone that aids
in the regulation of metabolic
rate. B (thyroid)
17. Gland that is regulated by
the hypothalamus and
produces hormones that
affect other endocrine
glands. A (pituitary)
Questions 18-21 are based
on the diagram below of a
reflex arc.
18. The effector. D
19. The Sensory neuron. B
20. Identify the neuron
located between structures B
and C. interneuron
21. Where is the neuron
between structures B and C
located? spinal cord