File - dbalmshistory

 Not a unified political
movement, but rather a
broad range of reform
 Rejected Social
Darwinism, laissez-faire
economics, &
 Blamed industrialization &
urbanization for the filth, crime,
and poverty of American cities, yet
embraced the power of science and
technology to build a better society
 Believed change can only come
through government regulation
of the economy and providing direct
help to those in need
 Progressives tended to be urban,
educated, middle-class
 Leadership came from journalists,
educators, social workers, and the
Rockefeller’s influence-power
 Journalists who
investigate social
conditions, unfair
business practices, and
political corruption
(today, this is called
“investigative journalism”)
 Term first coined by
Theodore Roosevelt in a
1906 speech
His vertical
and horizontal
Ida Tarbell
 1857 – 1944
 Magazine journalist
 Wrote The History of
Standard Oil Company
(1904), an expose of
Rockefeller’s unethical
business practices
 For many Americans, this was
their first lesson in the dangers
of trusts and monopolies
Charles Edward Russell
 1860 – 1941
 Journalist
 Exposed the conditions in
Chicago’s stockyards,
badly damaging the
reputation of the beef
 One of the founders of the
NAACP in 1909
 Later became a socialist,
ran for office in NY
David Graham Phillips
 1867 – 1911
 Journalist / Novelist
 Exposed how campaign
contributions had led to
corruption in the Senate; the
public uproar that followed led to
the passage of the 17th
Amendment, changing how
Senators are elected
 Shot and killed by a man who
believed Phillips’ exposé had led
to the downfall of his family’s
Lincoln Steffens
 1846 – 1936
 Journalist
 Wrote The Shame of the
Cities (1904), an exposé on
political corruption within the
US’ major cities
 Later became a communist,
declaring after a visit to the
Soviet Union in 1919: “I've
seen the future, and it works”
Jacob Riis
 1840 – 1914
 Danish immigrant
 Worked as a journalist and crime
scene photographer
 Wrote How the Other Half
Lives (1890): Used photographs
to expose the squalor and horrible
living conditions in the tenements
and slums of NYC
 Worked with then NYC policecommissioner Theodore
Roosevelt to effect reforms within
the NYPD
 Group of novelists who
argued that, contrary to
“survival of the fittest,”
sometimes people fail
through no fault of their
own – they are caught
up in circumstances that
they can’t control; part
of the Realism
Stephen Crane
 1871 – 1900
 Wrote Maggie, A Girl of the
Streets (1893): tale of a girl
forced by family
circumstances into
prostitution and death
 Also wrote The Red Badge
of Courage (1895), the
short-story The Open Boat
 Died of tuberculosis which
he contracted while
covering the SpanishAmerican War
Jack London
 1876 – 1916
 Author of The Call of the
Wild (1903)
 Wrote stories of man’s
struggle against the
uncontrollable power of
 Also a socialist
The Social Gospel
 1870 – 1920
 Work to improve society
through the biblical
ideals of charity and
 Primarily churchcentered
 Churches began to evolve
from being simply places of
worship to being community
centers and taking on
missions designed to help the
poor – provide gyms, social
programs, day care
The Salvation Army
 Began in England in 1865 as the
Christian Mission, spread to US in
 “The advancement of the
Christian religion as
promulgated in the religious
doctrines . . . the advancement
of education, the relief of
poverty, and other charitable
objects beneficial to society or
the community of mankind as a
 The Young Men’s Christian
 Began in England in 1844, spread
quickly throughout US
 Aim was to help urban workers by
offering Bible studies, prayer
meetings, citizenship classes
 Facilities included gyms, pools,
libraries, auditoriums, and
temporary low-cost lodging
Jane Addams
 1860 – 1935
 Founded Hull House, a
settlement house in Chicago
 First woman to win the Nobel
Peace Prize
 Supported the idea that
Christians have a moral
responsibility to fix society’s
problems & help the less
Settlement Houses
 Most famous settlement
house = Chicago’s Hull
 Middle class “settlers”
moved into working class
neighborhoods to help
provide education, meals,
childcare, medical care,
and general advice to
immigrants and poor
Public Education
 Industrialization
increased demand for a
trained, educated
 Schools were also
necessary for
immigrants’ children:
they learned English, US
History, patriotism,
responsibilities of
School to Work Pipeline
 Schools were used to teach
the traits necessary to
succeed in the industrial
workforce: punctuality,
attendance, neatness,
efficiency, attention to detail,
obedience to authority
 High schools offered a variety
of technical and vocational
Public Universities
 Due to the Morrill Land
Grant Act, the number of
public universities rose
 Between 1870 and 1890,
the number of American
students in college tripled
 New colleges opened
aimed specifically at
educating female and
black students