Chapter 4 – section 4.1 – 4.4 1. Define the four types of biological diversity and give two examples of each. 2. Define the term species. 3. List four ecological functions that insects provide. 4. What is Edward O. Wilson known for? 5. What is evolution and who are considered its founders? 6. Explain evolution in terms of mutation, heritable traits, natural selection and adaptation. Give an example. 7. Explain genetic resistance and give an example. 8. What are the three adaptations humans have making us dominant species? 9. What are two limitations to natural selection that keep humans from evolving traits against pollutants or UV radiation? 10. What are three myths in regards to natural selection. Define “fitness”. 11. What major geological process affects natural selection and how? 12. How do volcanoes affects evolution? 13. Explain how climate change such as ice ages have shaped evolution. 14. What catastrophic event has impacted evolution? 15. Explain the two phases in which speciation occurs when a species becomes separated. 16. Explain how speciation occurred in the fox. 17. What are the three possible futures that a species faces when environmental conditions change dramatically or rapidly? 18. What is an endemic species and give an example of one that went extinct? 19. Explain background extinction rate and mass extinction. 20. Compare crossbreeding to genetic engineering. What are the advantages of these processes? Chapter 4 sections 4.5 – 4.6 1. Explain the difference between species richness and species evenness using examples. 2. Why is plant productivity higher in species-rich ecosystems? 3. Why does species richness enhance ecosystem stability? 4. Give an example of how species can exploit a different portion of resources available in species rich ecosystems. 5. How is niche different than habitat? 6. Contrast characteristics of generalist with those that are specialists. 7. Why are panda bears considered specialists? 8. How are Africanized bees affecting ecosystems? 9. What are indicator species and give several examples? 10. Define keystone species and list several reasons why alligators are important keystone species. Generalist versus specialist Research 5 species that are considered specialists (excluding the panda) and five that are considered generalist. Write a few sentences about each organism that supports their niche.