SIMILE •compares two things to another using the words “like” or “as”. Example: •She is as sweet as pie. •He can run like the wind. METAPHOR• compares two things without using the words like or as. A metaphor states that something IS something else. (is, are, was, were) Example: • The fluffy clouds are marshmallows floating in the sky. • The mall is a zoo on Saturdays. • The noisy cardinals were an orchestra PERSONIFICATION • giving human characteristics or abilities to something that is not human, such as animals, plants, or inanimate objects. Example: The tree branches groaned in the wind. • The flowers bowed down to the rain. • Her eyes smiled at me. HYPERBOLE • expresses an obvious exaggeration. Example: -She bores me to death. -The waves were so high they touched the sky. - St. Agnes is the best school in the World (A fact, not Hyperbole!!!!!!) Onomatopoeia • the use of words that make sounds. Example: -The bullet whistled in the still air. -The flies buzzed around his head. Irony: several types 1. Situational Irony: when the outcome of a situation is totally unexpected or surprising For example: A champion swimmer drowns, or a firehouse burns down. 2. Verbal Irony: When someone says something different from what they really mean… For example: Sarcasm 3. Dramatic Irony: When the audience or reader knows something that the characters do not, something which adds suspense or humor. For example: In Toy Story, the toys move when the people are not there. Also, Buzz thinks he is a real space ranger, but we know he is not. Idiom a group of words established by use to have a particular meaning, on their own; however, they are meaningless Example: its “raining cats and dogs”, that was a “piece of cake” Analogy: creates a relationship based on parallels or connections between two ideas. By establishing this relationship, the new idea is introduced through a familiar comparison, thus making the new concept easier to grasp. Example: Just as a sword is the weapon of a warrior, a pencil is the weapon of a writer. Both need to be sharpened at times…etc. Pun The pun is a play on words using words that sound similar or that have multiple meanings. Examples: •A horse is a very stable animal. •An elephant’s opinion carries a lot of weight. •What is the difference between a conductor and a teacher? The conductor minds the train and a teacher trains the mind.