Many new democracies started up in the world, ,but there was also a strong push for communist uprisings in Germany, France and the United States By the end of the 1920s. Most countries were overtaken by a worldwide depression. This table illustrates the exchange rates of 1US$ value in German marks. The many democratic nations set up after WWI soon found themselves battling off other political ideologies such as communism or socialism. Fear of communism grew as nations saw Communists not as revolutionaries, but as an attempt by the Soviet Union to take over their nation. A response to communism and a solution to the problems of post WW I Europe was a new ideology known as fascism * Economic crisis * Fear of communism * Desire for leadership/order * Fear of social unrest/chaos Fascism allows one charismatic leader to take power and restore the nation’s strength and pride by whatever means necessary. Promotes the idea that everyone must work to make nation strong. Three Fascist Nations Germany Italy Japan Treaty of Versailles Black Tuesday 1929 - stock market crashes Total Control of State by a Dictator Great Depression during 1930s Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control -For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism What is it? Describe its characteristics… Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Strict controls and laws Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters) One leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Nazism Totalitarianism Communism Fascism *These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behavior I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953. What is Communism? • LEFT WING • based on theory by Karl Marx • revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society” • state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership) • Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943. What is Fascism? • RIGHT WING • intense nationalism and elitismvisibly patriotic • totalitarian control – strong military • interests of the state more important than individual rights • maintain class system and private ownership •People serve the state Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945. What is Nazism? • extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian • based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party • belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” • belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe •Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them • GESTAPO: the Secret State Police • SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA • SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties • Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east • Wehrmacht: German army • HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. “The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.