Open Library

ICT for Capacity Building in
Agricultural Education
Prof. SD Sharma
VC, DSVV Haridwar
Agriculture Revolution & HRD
 Spectacular growth in agriculture has been witnessed in the last six
decades in terms of food grains, milk, fish, oilseeds and fruit &
vegetables production
resulting in green, white, blue, yellow and golden revolutions,
thereby bringing general prosperity to the farming community.
Such success stories have been built upon the quality human
resources developed by the institutions of higher agricultural
education established in the country during the sixties and seventies
besides the government policies and the receptivity of farming
New breed of skilled human resources developed were not only
instrumental in generating new technologies but also catered to the
continual assessment, refinement and dissemination of technologies
for passing on to the farming community.
For sustaining and diversification of agricultural growth,
continuous development and strengthening quality of
agricultural human resource development is critical.
Capacity Building in HRD
 HRD is an essential component of Capacity building besides infrastructure building,
modernizing laboratories, quality and quantity of manpower, attracting & retaining
talent, research capability, increasing gross enrolment, reaching the unreached etc.
 Capacity building is to increase the knowledge, skills and understandings and to develop
the attitudes needed to bring about the desired developmental change.
Changing global scenario calls for addressing emerging challenges of
 declining response to agricultural inputs,
 degrading/depleting natural resources,
 increasing population and the
 vagaries of weather/climate change.
 Looming dangers of food insecurity due to stagnating/declining productivity/profits
 increased risk due to changing climate; unsafe livelihoods for millions of small and
marginal farmers; regional imbalances in agricultural productivity; rising input costs,
 unsound profits and vulnerable markets; changing food habits and quality concerns;
 high post- harvest losses and fragmented processing industry; globalization of trade and
commerce; weakened technology transfer system;
 fossil fuel crisis & growing emphasis on bio-fuels encroaching upon agricultural lands;
 poorly coordinated natural disaster management system, and the prospects of
bioterrorism etc.
Renewed Thrust for Quality
 Thrust for enhancing quality and quantity of HR being produced and making
them relevant in modern context by developing self-motivated professionals
and entrepreneurs for facing the challenges and the
changing scenario of globalization, emergence of new areas of specialization
such as IPRs, WTO-related areas, techno-legal specialties etc., and cutting
edge technologies such as biosensors, genomics and biotechnology,
alternative sources of energy, nanotechnology, etc.
Education should be able to address the stakeholders’ expectations.
Graduates are required to possess professional capabilities to deal with the
concerns of sustainable development of agriculture in all its dimensions.
Need for agricultural graduates having knowledge, skills, ability and also
entrepreneurship to provide a class of village-based services such as
diagnostic laboratories, advisories on new innovations, markets and avenues
of development assistance for corporate and contract farming.
Industry and universities partnership is essential for obtaining well-trained
agricultural professionals in cutting edge technologies for international
To address challenges and to achieve innovative growth in Ag. Edn. we
need to employ modern education technologies in agricultural
HRD Concerns for HEI
 Improving growth rate of educational institutions: Overall
growth rate in higher educational institutions(HEI) is around 6% pa. It
is much slower in agriculture/veterinary education sector and one can
hardly hope to make a dent on base line of educational status.
 Increasing enrolment of students: Growth rate of student
enrolment p.a. has been very poor, It is especially so in agriculture and
veterinary education sector. Gross enrolment ratio in HEI remains
around 0.57% in agriculture education and 0.17% in veterinary
education which is grossly inadequate in view of national resolve of
increasing overall GER as 30% by 2020. Unless alternative routes are
available, it seems difficult to bridge the gaps and achieve full
utilization of our human resource potential.
 Dropout rates: With overall dropout rates in 2000-01, 2001-02, 200203 and 2003-04 around 40.7%, 39.0%, 34.9% and 31.5% respectively,
there is a question mark as to why our pedagogy is not attracting
young minds and is not able to keep them interested.
Education and Learning
 Socrates said, “Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a
vessel”. It is not simply the delivery of the instructional material but
brining in the spark of innovative thinking among youth for which we
need inspired teachers to shape the thought processes of young
minds, having courage of conviction, deep knowledge of subject and
extra-ordinary communication ability for better understanding among
students and appreciating a subject from a wider perspective and also
encourage them to question their own knowledge.
Hon’ble President of India Shri Pranab Mukherjee emphasized during a
convocation address at Nagaland University recently that “Education is a
powerful tool for social thinking and transformation” and that
“Higher education system in India must rest on three pillars of
quality, affordability and accessibility”.
Learning Pyramid for subject comprehension and retention:
Lecture (5%), Reading (10%), Audio-visual (20%),
demonstration(30%), discussion group (50%), practice by
doing(75%), teach others/immediate use (90%).
Student engagement is from passive during lecture method to active
teaching and using.
Thinking levels-Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level of thinking
Higher level thinking Synthesis
Lower level thinking Comprehension
Does it have a value?
How does it relate?
How is it structured?
Using it
What does it mean?
Remember it
Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy
 There is problem of quantity with too few institutions of higher learning and
the limited seats available for which a large number of 10+2 students compete
with majority failing to get admission having no option of pursuing further
study in the subject of their interest and choice.
At the same time, there is a problem of the quality of the graduates being
churned out who lack depth of the subject, skills, confidence and consequently
the employability--- What to do with our incapable educated youth???.
To what extent our present education system is ready to take up the moral
challenge for ensuring our civilization values of love for motherland,
performance of duty, compassion for all, tolerance for pluralism, respect
for women and elderly, truth and honesty in life, discipline and self
restraint in conduct and responsibility in action to be fully entrenched in
the young minds.?? --- Hon’ble President of India
Transformation that is required calls for a major thrust and innovative
approaches to be adopted in the education sector.
Should we not respect the culture of excellence in our thought processes and
embed the same in our education system?
Moral values & ethics that are common for all human being and enunciated by
Taponistha, Pt. Shri Ram Sharma Acharya comprise of three components:
Excellence in thinking, Idealism in character and Modesty in behavior.
Need for Using ICT Tools
 Need sustained efforts matched with adequate investment in resources of
manpower, infrastructure strengthening, modernizing laboratories & course
curricula updation with real time exposure to the problem solving processes.
Supplementing resources utilizing modern technological & pedagogical tools.
ICT- digital technology- computers and internet, can be used effectively as a
powerful tool for innovative educational change and reforms.
Conventional approach in HR in education can be aided considerably by not only
providing alternative supplementary reading material through its knowledge
storehouse, not only as a delivery mechanism but also
by extending the reach to the unreached, providing access to quality lectures
of best teachers, providing real time exposure of best laboratories of the world
to remotest part of the country, and at the same time making learning much
more interesting through online games, quizzes, cartoons, quotes, anecdotes
and biographies etc.
ICT based technological interventions make available the knowledge resources to
every learner as per convenience and just in time and not constrained by “10-to5” time limitation of teaching institutions or even location of the learner, staying at
the convenience of his/her home, providing resources as and when required.
National Mission on Education through ICT
 Infrastructure being created by “NMEICT” launched in 2008-09 can
prove handy for pooling the collective wisdom of the best teachers of the
nation, for collaborative information sharing, transmitting important
lectures to students in remote areas far away from urban centers for the
benefit of every learner and, thereby, reducing the digital divide.
 Under the Mission, the emphasis has been on content generation,
research in critical areas for imparting of education and connectivity for
integrating our knowledge with the advancements in other countries.
 It aims and seeks to support a holistic approach by pooling critical mass
of experts in every field working in a networked manner for generating
online contents and build upon the synergies between various disjointed
efforts through capacity building and knowledge empowerment and
promoting new, upcoming multi-disciplinary fields of knowledge.
 ICT acts as a multiplier for capacity building efforts of educational
institutions without compromising the quality. To emerge as knowledgesuperpower of the world it is imperative to utilize the demographic
advantage by nurturing and honing knowledge access skills for
knowledge enabled population.
Factors Affecting Use of ICT in Edn.
 There exist drawbacks in general education in India like lack of
learning materials, teachers, remoteness of education facilities, high
dropout rate etc (UNESCO, 2002).
Factors affecting use of ICT in education:
 Access to education learning resources: infrastructure, socioeconomic, linguistic and physical barriers for accessing education.
 Quality of education- infrastructure, teacher and processes
 Resources allocated- Central and State Govt. reserve about 3.5%
of GDP for education (much less (<1%) for Ag. Edn.) as compared to
6% aimed by MHRD.
 Failure to implement constructivist pedagogy in edn. system,
 overpowering attention on economic value of learning technology,
 lack of capacity building of teachers and administrators.
Integrating ICT in Education
 Technology when it fits comfortably with curriculum or instructional plans is
an indicative of integrated technology.
Technology, content/subject matter, & pedagogy are not isolated components.
Successful integration is possible when the teacher assimilates his or her
knowledge of pedagogy, knowledge of content, and knowledge of technology.
Needs to redesign course curricula and lesson plans and pedagogy based
thereupon rather than providing an additional layer of ICT in the classroom.
Teacher encouraged to design learning activities ,
Students use technology to construct their own learning.
Students use technology for seeking information, construct and organise their
learning and represent it through computer applications.
Teacher plays a role of facilitator. Student constructs his/her own learning.
Such an approach considers technology as a tool rather than an end itself,
Defines teachers’ role as a facilitator and designer of the learning environment,
emphasizes the student’s use of technology, and authentic assessments and
activities using technology in the classroom.
ICT Competency Standards for Teachers
 Teachers need to be adequately trained with the ICT
competence with technology literacy tools for the purpose.
ICT competency standards for the teachers call for:
Policy and Vision- technology literacy, knowledge deepening,
knowledge creation
Curriculum and Assessment - Basic knowledge, knowledge
application, 21st Century skills
Pedagogy: integrate technology, complex problem solving, self
ICT: Basic tools, Complex tools, pervasive tools
Organisation and Administration- standard classroom,
collaborative groups, learning organisations
Teacher professional development: digital literacy, manage
and guide, teacher as model learner
ICT- A Flexible Delivery Medium
 Mediums used for delivery and conduct of education process:
 Voice – Instructional audio tools - interactive technologies and passive ones.
 Video - Instructional video tools - still images, prerecorded moving images, and real
time moving images combined with audio conferencing.
Print – instructional print formats - textbooks/study guides/workbooks/case studies.
By increasing flexibility of delivery, learners access knowledge anytime, from
ICT influences the way students are taught and how they learn as the processes
are learner driven and not by teachers.
This in turn would better prepare the learners for lifelong learning and
contribute positively towards building a knowledge enabled society.
It can improve the quality of learning and thus contribute to the economy.
It provides several tangible and intangible benefits for all stakeholders involved in the
economic growth of the country.
Wider availability of best practices and best course material in education,
which can be shared by means of ICT, can foster better teaching.
ICT also allows the academic institutions to reach disadvantaged groups and new
international educational markets.
ICT enabled education can ultimately lead to the democratization of education,
and to bridge the digital divide.
ICT Tools in Education Process
 Informative tool: It provides vast amount of data in various formats such
as audio, video, documents.
Situating tool: It creates situations, which the student experiences in real
life. Thus, simulation and virtual reality is possible.
Constructive tool: To manipulate the data and generate analysis.
Communicative tool: It can be used to remove communication barriers
such as that of space and time.
Creating Digital Libraries: ICTs allow for the creation of digital resources
like digital libraries where the students, teachers and professionals can
access research material and course material from any place at any
Such facilities allow the networking of academics and researchers and
hence sharing of scholarly material. This avoids duplication of work.
Use of ICT in education develops higher order skills such as collaborating
across time and place and solving complex real world problems. It
improves the perception and understanding of the world of the student.
Thus, ICT can be used to prepare the workforce for the information
society and the new global economy.
ICT for Conducting Education Process
 Seeking available knowledge through internet web
browsing- Google search, Wikipedia etc.
As delivery mechanism for the learning resources to the
remotest parts of the country- reaching the unreached.
Making available online lectures of reputed experts in the
concerned subject matter
Providing supplementary reading material through online
open resources on the web
ICT can bridge the digital divide and foster digital
citizenship, create learning interest, attendance and
retention, learning achievement and improve learning
processes and pedagogy.
Benefits of ICT in Education
For Student
For Employers
Increased access,
Flexibility of content and delivery,
Combination of work and education,
Learner-centred approach,
Higher quality of education and new ways of interaction.
High quality, cost effective professional development in the
Upgrading of employee skills, increased productivity,
Development of a new learning culture,
Sharing of costs and of training time with the employees,
Increased portability of training.
Increase the capacity and cost effectiveness of education and
training systems,
To reach target groups with limited access to conventional
education and training,
To support and enhance the quality and relevance of existing
educational structures,
To ensure the connection of educational institutions and curricula
to the emerging networks and information resources,
To promote innovation and opportunities for lifelong learning.
Role of Teacher to Enhance Learning
 First role of the teacher is to enhance teaching. ‘How will ICT enhance
my teaching?’ The teacher should be aware of what lacunae exist in his/her
Teacher should ask ‘Do I need to be empowered? ‘What more can be done?’
‘What is the most effective way of teaching?’ ‘How will more students benefit
from my teaching?’ ‘Will ICT help me?’
Second role is helping the student learn. Internet is full of information,
textbooks are bursting with information. This information can become true
knowledge only when the teacher makes it meaningful.
Teacher can use multimedia to make topics more comprehensible.
Entire teaching-learning process gets a boost with the appropriate use of ICT.
It should be used to fill in the inadequacies that the teacher is facing.
Problem of large numbers, students not showing interest etc. can be tackled
to some extent through ICT.
Can use of ICT make teaching more meaningful, get rid of rote memorizing?
Teacher needs to be fully aware of the fact that students can find
information, they need proper instructions, they need scope for
creativity, the expectations of the teacher brings forth performance.
How ICT can be made Effective?
 Present generation is a multimedia generation. It is not their fault. They are numbed by
too much of information and easy access to that information. How then can we expect
our students to sit and listen to lifeless sermons in class.
 Information that is given in the classroom is redundant and presented in boring manner.
 NGC, Discovery, Fox History can take one to places and time in minutes. They show so
much of the present and the past far and wide that one seems to learn unknowingly.
 One search on Google and lo and behold! The information at your fingertips will be
difficult to assimilate. How does one harness this gargantuan accessibility of
information? How to make students use it appropriately and avoid brazen plagiarism?
 Vague expectations, lack of innovation, poor scope for creativity make learning dull.
Mere use of computer/Internet doesn’t improve the learning output. Process should be:
 Step one: What are the problems in colleges, classrooms, exclusively related to teachinglearning? Identify them. Large numbers? Lack of interest? Many drop outs? Learning
 Step two: What is being done about these problems? Can use of ICT help? Try making
lectures, classes more technology laden to bring a difference. Observe the difference in
the classes.
 Step three: What are the requirements of the teacher to do a better job? Do the
teachers feel that use of ICT to help them improve their teaching?
 Step four: Are the teachers and students equipped with ICT skills?
ICT in Education
 Although ICT offers the opportunity to construct powerful learning
experiences, it is pedagogically neutral.
ICT can be used in support of traditional teaching methodologies like
the large group lecture, student note taking, and examinations.
Teachers can use a computer and projector to show slides to illustrate a
lecture, students can use laptops to take notes during the lecture, and
multiple choice quizzes about the content of the lecture can be put on
a website.
How these new ICT tools and resources will be used is a human
decision, not inherent in the technologies themselves.
ICT has the potential to be used as a supportive educational tool
enabling students’ learning by doing.
ICT can make it possible for teachers to engage students in self-paced,
self-directed problem-based or constructivist learning experiences;
and also test student learning in new, interactive, and engaging ways
that may better assess their understanding of the content.
ICT in Education
 A second way to assess the merit of ICT use in education is to consider
what its use enables students and teachers to do that they would not
otherwise be able to do. To explore this question, we consider five
aspects of the educational use of ICT –
 supporting new pedagogical methods
 accessing remote resources
 enabling collaboration
 extending educational programs and
 developing skills for the workplace
 Modern constructivist educational theory emphasizes critical
thinking, problem solving, “authentic” learning experiences, social
negotiation of knowledge, and collaboration – pedagogical methods
that change the role of the teacher from disseminator of information
to learning facilitator, helping students as they actively engage with
information and materials to construct their own understandings.
That is, students learn how to learn, not just what to learn.
Electronic learning or E-learning
 A term for all types of technology enhanced learning where
technology is used to support learning process.
E-learning has Learning tools, content and Assessment
Learning tools may be Asynchronous such as Forum, web logs
i.e., Blogging, Micro-blogging, Bookmarking, Wiki, RSS (Really
Simple Syndication) web feeds (in XML format) to publish
frequently updated content including blog entries, news
headlines, and podcasts
and Synchronous tools such as Chat, video conferencing, web
conferencing, 3D virtual spaces.
Content may comprise of i-lectures, lecture notes, podcasts,
glossary, simulations, games, Open education resources
(OER)/Open Course ware(OCW).
Assessment component comprise of quizzes, portfolio,
assignment and case summary.
Advantages of E-Learning
 Eliminates time barriers in education for learners as well as teachers;
 Eliminates geographical barriers as one can log on from any place;
 Asynchronous interaction is made possible leading to thoughtful and
creative interaction;
Enhanced group collaboration;
New educational approaches can be used.
Can provide speedy dissemination of education to target
disadvantaged groups;
Offers combination of education while balancing family and work life;
Enhances international dimension of educational services;
Allows for just in time and just enough education for employees in
Can be used for non-formal education like health campaigns and
literacy campaigns.
Allows delivery, dialogue and feedback over the Internet.
Allows mass customization in terms of content and exams.
Advantages of E-Learning
 Can provide access to the best gurus and the best practices or
knowledge available.
It is possible to leverage the online environment to facilitate teaching
techniques like role-play across time and distance. It can also facilitate
the development of scenarios, which can be rarely witnessed in practice.
ICT can play a valuable role to monitor and log the progress of the
students across time, place and varied activities.
Differentiated ICT based education can be expected to provide greater
reliability, validity, and efficiency of data collection and greater ease of
analysis, evaluation, and interpretation at any educational level.
In absence of ICT, most of the responsibility of teaching and learning
lies on the teachers.
However, with the help of ICT one can transfer the responsibilities to
the students so that they can self manage.
It helps to individualize the teaching or guidance method as per the
student’s need.
Advantages of E-Learning
 It boosts the confidence level and the self-esteem of the students who
acquire the ICT skills through the process of being exposed to such kind
of learning.
 ICT-based registration, evaluation, and administration helps to link
different levels of information and facilitate an overall view of the whole
educational setup.
 It facilitates the evaluation and examination of the learning process
and results by the students and the parents in a flexible and convenient
 Globalization process has created a large market of offshore students.
 To reach them, information technology is the only convenient medium,
which can offer education as a service.
 It increases education provision substantially and can contribute to
mass education.
 It also creates competition among the institutions for providing
education and hence improves the quality.
Indian Efforts in ICT in Education
 Availability of ICTs is widespread in large parts of the country, with pockets of
saturation. In other areas, availability is lower due to terrain or extreme deprivation.
 With the availability of cyber cafes, one can get access to government documents
(such as birth and death certificates, land registration and government schemes),
Farmers can get daily updates on market prices of locally produced food grains and
vegetable crops from around the district
 Access to ICTs is still limited because of physical infrastructure constraints such as
lack of electricity, poor maintenance of telephone lines and distance from the kiosk
or cyber cafe; economic constraints such as extreme poverty; educational
limitations such as illiteracy and the lack of relevant content in the local language;
and social constraints of gender, class, community and caste.
We do not know the extent to which social constraints limit access to technology.
India has extensive experience in use of broadcast technologies for both formal and
non-formal education. This includes using radio and television for agriculture and
rural development, for non-formal education and out-of-school children, and
school telecasts from 1983 onwards in national and regional languages.
Satellite-based teleconferencing (one-way video, two-way audio) for formal & nonformal education has been operational since 1992 at a national and regional level.
These efforts have culminated in the launch of Gyan Darshan, a dedicated
satellite-to-cable educational television channel, and Gyan Vani, a dedicated
educational channel.
Emerging Trends in using ICT
 Education by the students is viewed as an investment in future with an
orientation towards securing a good job, for increasing their economic
status and security, for developing occupational skills required for
efficient performance of their future jobs. Education is also seen by
some as a means of reducing social divide, population control, and also
as a source of integration and democracy
Emerging trends in education sector and growth opportunities
Promoting e-textbooks for growth of intelligent classrooms to
encourage student interaction & collaboration
Embracing Mobile devices for education to learn & study anywhere
Advancing Academic Analytics to improve teaching & learning
Transforming academic & administrative enterprise data into
“actionable intelligence”
International Student mobility trend through Massive Open Online
Courses (MOOC)
Designing Syllabus for Quality Edn
 Leveraging innovative techniques in designing syllabus to
improve the quality of education
 Identifying relevant concepts, usage skills, social aspects into key
features of syllabus topics
 Designing and evaluating syllabuses- Computer Mediated
 Opting Product oriented syllabuses- Structural; Situational; National;
Functional Approach
 Opting Process oriented syllabuses- procedural and task based;
learner led and proportional approach
 Involving industry experts in university course design?
 Transforming traditional class room based teaching to
entrepreneurial, Industry-Institutional interactive teaching
 Introducing innovative industry-institutional linkage to improve
quality & relevance for student’s better career option
 Bringing together institutions and global organizations to develop
industry-academia collaboration
Effective Teacher Training Technique
 Determining innovative and effective teacher training techniques in
colleges thereby improving the quality of teachers
Regulating Teachers education in India by NCTE
Evaluating the importance of integrated teaching, teacher curriculum &
teacher education for effective delivery Inclusive quality education
Understanding the importance of teacher training with technology tools &
effective pedagogy techniques for conceptual learning for students
Developing role playing and scenario analysis based teaching for
Effective ways in using ICT tools for Teacher Professional
Understanding the role and potentials of ICTs in increasing access,
improving relevance, quality of education
Identifying an impact of ICT being effective and integral tools for learning
& achievement
Implementing innovative ICT applications taking full advantage of mobile
phones, mobile Internet access, and social media tools for e-education
Implementing Cloud Computing
 Implementing Cloud Computing in Education in
India- a viable proposition?
 Implementing Cloud Computing in institutions as
Innovative and cost saving strategy
 Escalated demand for IT services & resources in
Education field with increased IT cost and decreased IT
budgets- Cloud Computing an alternate solution?
 Defining cloud computing models- Software; Platform;
Infrastructure and It’s potential in the near future
Lowering Teacher Student Ratio
 Strategies to lower Teacher Student Ratio for instruction delivery
 Identifying & Implementing various factors in order for educated youth to
opt this profession and thereby improving the ratio
Implementing technology savvy virtual class room concept
Ensuring Institutions to improve Teacher Taught Ratio by employing fresh
Implementing Innovative teaching methodologies enable
maximizing digital tools and resources for teacher and student use in
technology-rich learning environments.
Learning how to bridge the digital technology gaps in the quality of
Assessing the effectiveness of the implementation of digital learning tools
for successful instructional practice
Applying user friendly digital study material enable students to access an
affordable learning tool
Evaluating the difference between the potential and actual efficiency in
interactive learning
Administration Software Tools
 Efficient administration software tools to enhance the overall
smooth functioning of the educational institute
Managing finances, staff performance, student recruitment and alumni
relationship effectively & efficiently by administrative tools
Automating institution administration system for controlled process with
instant access to key information
Building an effective and interactive school community without
extravagant spending
Policy initiatives for Autonomous and Government affiliated
education institutes
Understanding Policy implications and issues for continuous development
of education and Research
University Autonomy is necessity for excellence however not a sufficient
condition for excellence
Introducing better practices in the system for fairer evaluation
Building right kind of infrastructure & facilities to support with new and
improved syllabus
Education Best Practices
 Effective use of Tablets to improve education standard?
 Using Tablet Computers to replace the contents of a student backpack
 Making schools more efficient, friendly & personalized place with
tablet based approach
Educating teachers on technology and helping students to achieve
better grades
Leveraging Education best practices to propel activity based
learning schools
Engaging students in active learning experience with high, meaningful
expectations and timely specific feedback
Understanding and valuing criteria and methods for student
assessment and real-world application
Creating opportunities for student-faculty & student-student
Promoting student involvement through engaged time and quality
Open Learning Resources
 Open learning resources are educational materials and resources
offered freely and openly for anyone to use and under some
licenses to re-mix, improve and redistribute. Several such open
resources are available. are Open
Educational Resources.
 Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching and learning
materials that are freely available online for everyone to use,
whether you are an instructor, student or self-learner.
 Examples of OER include: full courses, course modules, syllabi,
lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom
activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many
more resources contained in digital media collections from
around the world.
 OERs exist within a wider 'Open' movement and context.
Open Movement
 A range of 'Open' philosophies and models have emerged during the 20th
Century as a result of several different drivers and motivations - including
sharing freely, preventing duplication, avoiding restrictive (copyright)
practices, promoting economic efficiencies and improving access to wide
groups of stakeholders. Many of these have been driven by and created by
communities that recognise the benefits to themselves, and sometimes to
wider groups. Some of these are listed below:
Open source (relating to business and technology)
Open source software
Open source hardware
Open standards
Open access (research)
Open design
Open knowledge
Open data
Open content
Open courseware
Open educational resources
Open educational practices
Open Contents and Courseware
 Several of these 'movements‘ have been significant within the
education community both in terms of research and learning &
teaching (particularly educational technology).
 Whilst it is widely expected that sharing and openness would
bring benefits to some stakeholders in the educational
community, traditional cultures and practices, managerial
approaches and processes, and perceived legal complexities have
been identified as barriers to sharing both within and across
institutions. (refs: CD LOR, TRUST DR, Sharing e-learning
content, Good Intentions report)
 Whilst the terms 'Open content' and 'Open courseware' are
sometimes used to mean the wide range of resources to support
learning and teaching, one is fairly broad and the other very
specific. We use the term Open Educational Resources (OER) as
this relates to resources that are specifically licensed to be used
and re-used in an educational context.
Granularity of Learning Resources
 Whilst purely informational content has a significant role in
learning and teaching, it is helpful to consider learning
resources by their levels of granularity and to focus on the
degree to which information content is embedded within a
learning activity:
Digital assets – normally a single file (e.g. an image, video or
audio clip), sometimes called a ‘raw media asset’;
Information objects – a structured aggregation of digital
assets, designed purely to present information;
Learning objects – an aggregation of one or more digital assets
which represents an educationally meaningful stand-alone
Learning activities – tasks involving interactions with
information to attain a specific learning outcome;
Learning design – structured sequences of information and
activities to promote learning.
Open Educational Resources
 Open Educational Resources (OER) was first introduced in 2000 and was
promoted in the context of providing free access to educational resources on a
global scale.
 There is no authoritatively accredited definition for the term OER at present,
with the OECD preferring, 'digitised materials offered freely and openly for
educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning
and research' (OECD, 2007). Stephen Downes presents a useful overview of
what Open Educational Resources are in Open Education: Projects and
 "Engagement with OER can be light touch. New staff should be encouraged to
source open materials when creating new educational materials (from CC
resources or other OER), and to fully reference all other assets in their
teaching materials. An academic’s own digital assets such as images, pod casts
and video can be released under a CC licence to web 2.0."
 OER initiatives aspire to provide open access to high-quality education
resources on a global scale. From large institution-based or institutionsupported initiatives to numerous small-scale activities, the number of OER
related programmes and projects has been growing quickly within the past
few years.
Open Access Courses
 According to OECD in 2007, there are materials from more than 3000 open access
courses (open courseware) currently available from over 300 universities worldwide:
 In the United States resources from thousands of courses have been made available by
university-based projects, such as MIT OpenCourseWare and Rice University’s
Connexions project: (, )
In China, materials from 750 courses have been made available by 222 university
members of the China Open Resources for Education (CORE)
consortium. (
In Japan, resources from more than 400 courses have been made available by the19
member universities of the Japanese OCW Consortium. (
In France, 800 educational resources from around 100 teaching units have been made
available by the 11 member universities of the ParisTech OCW project.
In Ireland, universities received government funding to build open access institutional
repositories and to develop a federated harvesting and discovery service via a national
portal. It is intended that this collaboration will be expanded to embrace all Irish
research institutions. (
And in the UK, the Open University has released a range of its distance learning
materials via the OpenLearn project (, and over
80 UKOER projects have released many resources (via Jorum) which are used to support
teaching in institutions and across a range of subject areas.
Directory of Learning Tools
Personal Learning Network
Finding relevant OERs
Using Open Libraries: Open Library is an open, editable
library catalog, building towards a web page for every book ever published. Just
like Wikipedia, you can contribute new information or corrections to the
catalog. You can browse by subject, author or lists members have created. If you
love books, why not help build a library? If you’re even remotely interested in
libraries or big data, we encourage you to have a look around the Open Library
Books to Read: The World's classic literature at your fingertips.
Over 1,000,000 free ebook titles available.
Books to Borrow: Here's a sample of recently returned books from
the eBook lending library.
Recipe to Deliver World Class Lectures
Open Learning World
Welcome to Open Learning, your e-learning portal where we have
designed a variety of FREE online courses. This will be your first and last stop in your
quest for FREE education, FREE classes, FREE studies, FREE knowledge towards
becoming a bright, better, educated, knowledgeable & refined new person. All our
courses are FREE, NO registration is required, try them and see how it helps you
change your whole perspective on things and your personality.
Human Resourse Courses
Finance Courses
Marketing Courses
Training and Human Resources
Capital Markets
International Business
Selling Step By Step
Employee Grievances and
Personal Finance
Marketing Management
Employee Stock Options
Quality Management
Management Courses
Health Courses
What is ISO 9000
Medical Products Quality
Quality by Design
Quality Improvement
Management System
Regulatory Requirements for
Forest Management in
Pharmaceutical Products
Fundamentals Of Clinical Trials
More Courses
Personality Development Miscellaneous Courses
Customer Service
Personal Finance
US Citizenship
Know Your Customers
Public Speaking
Food Preparation in the
Customer Relationship
Creating Confidence
Management (CRM)
Consumer Behavior and
Information Technology
Management Courses
Introduction to Spa and
Basics of Computers
Hospitality Operations
Self Help Courses
Expert Systems
Project Management
Handling Our Own
Short cut to Windows
Fundamentals of Business
Aggression & Anger
Coping With Depression
International Business
Building Self confidence
Organization Courses
Ten Mantras to Corporate Success
Corporate Espionage
How to start your own DOT COM
 ICT tools can supplement the efforts for the capacity
building in HRD in Agricultural Education.
 Modern ICT enabled innovative education
technologies can change the current paradigm of
education through enhanced learning.
 E-Learning with Open Education/Learning Resources
opens up a vast scope for life long learning of the
students as well as teachers.
 Teachers must try to integrate the ICT tools in their
pedagogy as a facilitator, allowing students to
construct their own learning, rather than rote
memorizing the learning material.