IB HL Sports Psych Problems in Sport

Problems in Sport
Stress, Injury, PED’s and Burnout
Stress and Injury
– Stress is leading cause of injury, misuse of PED’s
and burnout
– Finch et al (1998): 20-30% of total injuries in a
given population are sports related
– Research: increased stress in life = increased
injury in sports
• Smith et al (1990): 452 m/f high school athletes,
assessed stress, social support, coping skills and # of
days off related to injury
– Results showed a correlation between stressors and injury,
other factors included low social support and low coping
Explaining the Relationship Between
Stress and Injury
• Williams et al (1991); stress disrupts attention,
reduces peripheral awareness
• Anderson & Williams (1999): negative life
event stressors were the only significant
predictor of injury in 196 college athletes
• Smith et al (2000): muscle tension caused by
stress interferes with normal coordination, thus
increasing rick of injury
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQeDYBS6
3lY (stress and the brain)
Stress and Recovery
–Cramer et al (2000): natural healing
disrupted by high glucocorticoids, impairing
the immune response and inhibiting
production of growth hormones
»Cortisol inhibits recovery of damaged
–Perna et al (2003): stress caused impaired
sleep patterns and protein synthesisessential for recovery process
Responding To Injury
Grief Response Model
(Hardy, Crace, 1990)
• Coping with 3 stressors (Physical, Psychological and Social)
essential to rehab process takes one of 2 forms
Denial: injured players pushes it and make it worse
Anger: about injury’s impact on ability/career
Bargaining: deal making to mitigate the injury
Depression: reality of injury
Acceptance/reorganization: coping can begin
• Similar to Kubler-Ross 5 Stages of Grief
• Petitpas & Danish (1995): Identity Loss—injury
low self –efficacydepressionlow self
confidencelow status and
motivationidentity loss
Cognitive Appraisal Model
(Urdy et al, 1997)
• “Information Processing” About Injury (Urdy et al)
– Stage 1: Amount/type of pain, how/why it
happened, consequences and rehab options
– Stage 2: emotional upheaval, reactive
behaviors—anger, frustration
– Stage 3: Developing, outlook and coping
Cognitive Appraisal Model
(Wiese, Bjornstal, 1998)
• Primary Appraisal: what is at stake, challenge,
threat, benefit or loss
• Secondary Appraisal: how can you cope,
options available
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAjjGyJb
PED use in last 20 Years
– Physical considerations
• Strength, endurance, alertness, aggression, fatigue,
anxiety, wt. gain/loss all can be impacted by PED’s
– Psychological considerations
• Coping w/stress, self esteem, confidence, respond to
external pressures
– Social considerations
• Social learning theory: see model (Bonds, Canseco,
Ben Johnson) do it without getting caught (Bandura;
Anshel, 1998)
• Conformity, coercion, peer pressure
• “Game Theory” (Axelrod, 1984): if you don’t use you
will be left behind by the using competition (e.g. EPO
doping in the Tour de France, roids in MLB), leads to
cognitive rationalization that the rewards outweigh
the risks of getting caught
Physical Effects of Steriods
• synthetic derivatives of testosterone, anabolic effects
retention of protein to build muscle
• “stacking”: combo of different types can be
• Injections increase risk of Hepatitis B, HIV
• Damage may take years to see (Lyle Alzado)
• Feminization Effect in men
• Women have “Masculinization Effect”
• Acne, wt. gain, liver damage, heart attack, stroke,
increased cholesterol, weak tendons (see Bo Carrol),
permanent growth halt in teens in both males and
Psychological Effects of Steroids
Mood swings, extreme irritability/aggression (“roid rage”),
addiction and withdrawal issues
Effects of Other PED’s
Beta blockers: reduce anxiety, blood
pressure, heart rate, depresses CNS
• Diuretics: wt. loss, dehydration, cramping,
kidney stones, increased cholesterol
• EPO (erythropoietin): increased oxygen and
stamina, risks for blood clots, heart attack,
• Narcotics: mask pain, failure to feel injury,
overdose threat
Causes of Burnout
Cognitive-Affective Stress Model
(Smith 1986) how thoughts and feelings
influence athlete’s burnout
• Stage 1: Situation Demands: demands exceed
resources = stress
• Stage 2: Cognitive Appraisal: threat vs. challenge
appraisal of situation = anxious or excited
• Stage 3: Physiological Responses: fight or flight due to
• Stage 4: Behavioral Response: performance issues,
cohesion problems, withdrawal
– Hardiness (Kobasa, 1986) is the key
factor to overcoming stressors and resisting
burnout; based on 3 factors
• Control: person’s ability to influence events
• Commitment: person’s refusal to give up
• Challenge: person’s willingness to change
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6h6LJu_g5
Mental Toughness Model (Clough and
Earle, 2001)
• Mental toughness questionnaire resulted in a group
of mentally tough subjects and non mentally tough
who then did 3 30 minute cycling trials at 30, 50 and
70% max; oxygen uptake and reactions of subjects
was recorded
• Results showed MT subjects reported lower perceived
exertion, even at 70% suggesting MT helps withstand
• https://www.competitivedge.com/athletes-%E2%80%9Chow-tough-areyou%E2%80%9D-0 (mental toughness test)
Self Determination Theory
(Raedeke, 1997)
• Burnout results from lack of intrinsic
motivation or control over participation;
“have to” rather than “get to” attitude
• Factors include: identity = sport,
entrapment, social support/demands
Preventing Burnout
– Cognitive Affective Stress Management (Smith,
• Mental/physical coping strategies designed to prevent
burnout in 4 steps
– Pre-treatment Assessment: interviews to assess the athlete’s
stress response and appraisal
– Treatment Rationale: athlete analyzes and gains
understanding of personal stress reactions
– Skill Acquisition: athlete learns relaxation, cognitive
restructuring and self talk
– Skill Rehearsal: stress is induced to allow athlete to practice
new stress reducing skills
– Stress Inoculation Theory (SIT) Meichenbaum, 1985
• Athlete is exposed to increasing levels of stress in 3 stages,
thereby enhancing his/her immunity “Learned
– Stage 1: Conceptualization: athlete becomes aware of +/-thoughts, self talk, imagery
– Stage 2: Rehearsal: practice
– Stage 3: Application: athlete encounters low stress and then
moves up to moderate then high and applies what was
rehearsed in stage 2
– Prepare--control--cope--evaluate--overcome