Fundamental Five
[Sean Cain, Mike Laird]
in the
Teacher Language
• TAKS Objective 4 – The student will demonstrate an
understanding of motion, forces, and energy.
• Lesson Objective: Students will implement a simple experiment to
learn about testing variables while furthering their knowledge of
pulmonary health.
Scientific Processes - Scientific Inquiry:
Field and Laboratory Investigations
The student uses scientific methods during field and
laboratory investigations.
Scientific Processes - Scientific Inquiry: Field and Laboratory Investigations
The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations.
The student is expected to
•plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental
investigations including
asking well-defined questions,formulating testable hypotheses,
andselecting and using equipment and technology.
•collect information by observing and measuring.
•analyze and interpret information to construct
reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence.
•communicate valid conclusions.
•construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts
using tools including computers to organize, examine, and
evaluate information.
Force & Motion TEKS
Activity Objectives:
Activity Description:
Warning: Identify those students with asthma
or other respiratory problems. They should not
perform the breathing exercises in this activity
because they involve repeated maximal
inhalations and exhalations and use of a
breathing restriction mouthpiece which
could leave the students short of breath or,
possibly, trigger an asthmatic episode. These
students can observe and use data collected
by their group.
Place in the
classroom where
students can see the
written objective and
Discuss the objective
at the beginning of
the lesson
Make sure it is
reasonable to
complete the
objective in one daily
lesson or class
The objective needs
to be “kid friendly”
The objective must
be specific enough
to clarify the goal
In this activity, you will be conducting an experiment that includes variables. A variable
is something that changes during the experiment. The independent variable in an
experiment is chosen by the experimenter and is manipulated or changed by the
experimenter. The dependent variable is not manipulated by the experimenter. It
changes in response to the changes made to the independent variable.
EXAMPLE: I will do an experiment where I change a variable and observe and measure
what happens because of the change.
Completed by
every student
Done at the end of
the lesson
A final check for
Looked at daily by
the teacher to
guide future
Likely to increase
the opportunity for
a student to retain
important learning
Proof for the
teacher that
learning has
Create a Product
Brainstorm a product that moves students to higher level of
cognition by increasing the rigor between the objective, closing
question, product, or task.
• MOST effective position to conduct your craft.
• Simply teaching or monitoring in close proximity.
• IF you engage in this practice EVERY other instructional practice you use is
enhanced & more powerful.
• EXPECTATION 75% or more of your class time spent in THE POWER ZONE
On task behaviors increase, discipline issues decrease,
student retention of content increases.
Proximity for behavior management
Teachers in the middle of the action, can immediately respond to student changes
in behavior or performance.
• Reinforce positive behaviors, extinguish negative behaviors before fires arise.
• BEST position to conduct frequent and on-going formative assessments and micro
adjust instruction.
Ask Questions
• What is asthma?
• How does it effect people who have it?
• How can we use air to design an experiment to show force and motion?
Research: Build Background
• Pulmonary disorders are classified into two main categories: obstructive and
• Obstructive disorders represent those in which the flow of air is impeded or
• Restrictive disorders are those in which the volume of air is reduced.
During an asthma attack, it is harder
and takes much longer to
breathe out (expire or exhale) than to
breathe in (inspire or inhale). Since it
is so hard to breathe out during an
asthma attack, more and more air gets
trapped inside the lungs - making it
feel like you can't breathe in or out!
• Every 10-15 mins of teacher lead discussion or at completion
of major concept--teacher stops and briefly (30secs-3 mins)
• have students discuss a seed question related to learning
• Key--focused, micro-discussion (NOT PLAYTIME)
Turn The Question into a
• START WITH AN IF, THEN STATEMENT: If the flow of air by restriction is
reduced, then the force of air will be less.
Turn that into a testable statement:
• Example: Reducing the flow of air in a blow gun will cause the
projectile’s flight to decrease in distance.
Primacy/Recency Effect 1880's research(Ebbinghaus)--in a
learning episode we tend to remember BEST which comes
first, 2nd best second, etc.
Remember LEAST anything after the middle of the learning episode.
Problem-MOST teachers have 1 start & 1 finish
Brain DOESN'T track time(class periods), it tracks state changes.
- Change in physical or mental state!
- Multiple changes= multiple starts/finishes
- Multiple vibrant learning throughout class!
• Typical adult attention span= 10-15 mins
• Typical teenager 8-10 (Allen 2009, 31).
Build Your Pom Pom
Per shooter
▲● 4- 4” pieces of 1/2” PVC pipe
▲● 2 -2” pieces of 1/2” PVC pipe
▲● 1- 7” piece of 1/2” PVC pipe
●● 2 elbow connectors for 1/2“ PVC
●● 2 T connectors for 1/2” PVC
●● 3 end-caps for 1/2” PVC, drilled to restrict air flow
Build Your Pom Pom
Get em Moving and Doing!
• Load a pom pom to the front of the pom pom shooter
(furthest from mouth)
• predict how far the marshmallow will shoot
• Try it
Addresses both sides of the learning coin--Academic & Behavioral
- Marzano (2001)-- use of effective reinforcement produced between a 20 to
48 percentile gain in student achievement!
• MAKE Academic Success a REALLY BIG DEAL!
• Praise OFTEN!
• Not just the A students.
- Student avg 71% on test now gets an 85%
- More participation in class discussions
- Struggling student turning in HW MORE.
• Recognition at ANY level provides student with motivation to continue pursuit of
academic success.
• Students (especially At-Risk) can FINALLY see the connection between effort and reward.
• Personalize it and be specific.
Test It!
• Load a pom pom to the front of the pom pom shooter
(furthest from mouth)
• Predict how far the marshmallow will shoot
• Try it
More Air = More Force
• Load a pom pom to the back of the pom pom shooter (closest
to mouth)
• Predict how far the it will shoot
• Try it
Marshhmallow vs Pom Pom
Mario and Luigi are arguing in the cafeteria. Mario says that if
he flings a fire ball with a greater speed, then it will have a
greater inertia. Luigi argues that inertia does not depend upon
speed, but rather upon mass. Who do you agree with? Explain
Luigi is correct. Inertia is that quantity which depends solely
upon mass. The more mass, the more inertia. Momentum is
another quantity in Physics which depends on both mass
AND speed. Momentum (p) is expressed as:
mass X velocity
Marshmallow vs Pom-Pom
• Load marshmallow to the back of the pom pom shooter
(closest to mouth)
• Predict how far the marshmallow will go.
• Try it.
• A variable is something that is changed
• A constant, or control, is something that does not change
Science experiments
• Independent Variable: the one factor that is changed by the
person doing the experiment
• Dependent Variable: the factor which is measured in the
• Constants: all the factors that stay the same in an experiment
Our Variables
• Restriction of air flow
• Mouth pieces with smaller holes
Conduct the Investigation
(Task Cards)
Analyze the Data
Graph the Data
• Critical writing-writing for the purpose of organizing, clarifying, defending,
refuting, analyzing, dissecting, connecting/ expanding on ideas & concepts.
• "Results Now" M. Schmoker (2006).
• Process of Putting focused thought on to paper.
Not copying—That only turns entire classrooms in to slow-speed
Xerox machines!
Draw Conclusions
Final Thoughts!
Must progress come to an end – either in catastrophe or in
some sort of completion – or is it unbounded? The answer
is the latter.The philosopher John Locke wrote in 1689 that
the mind is like ‘white paper’ on to which sensory
experience writes, and that that is where all our knowledge
of the physical world comes from. In reality scientific
theories are not ‘derived’ from anything. Human minds
create them by rearranging, combining, altering and adding
to existing ideas with the intention of improving upon them.
-David Deutsch, 2011, The Beginning of Infinity.