The Power of Kings The Rise of Nations in Europe & the End of the Middle Ages The Church vs. The Nation The Roman Catholic Church: ◦ Kept legal, economic, and educational systems alive in Europe during Middle Ages ◦ Power—wealth, ability to grant positions & excommunication What does that mean? Emerging Nations: ◦ Hadn’t existed until end of Middle Ages! ◦ Community of people who share government & territory as well as common language, culture, & national identity ◦ Governed by one King ◦ Power—wealthy & military strength, but also implied authority How had the role of King changed? Used to be little difference between Kings & Lords Control used to be entirely military (Might=Right), until… ◦ Growing towns paid King taxes directly instead of through the Lords ◦ Kings used this money to hire his own army, loyal to just him! ◦ Further consolidated power during Crusades & Black Death (by taking back land & power from nobles who died) So, how did Nations form in Europe? As kings became more & more powerful they spread their influence in many ways: ◦ Germany—challenged Church for power to name Popes ◦ Spain—united through marriage ◦ France—united people based upon common religion ◦ Russia—conquering neighbors England Becomes a Nation Battle of Hastings (1066) William of Normandy (a region in France) conquered England Became known as the Norman Conquest “William the Conqueror” and his sons (Henry I & Henry II) united the nation & strengthened the throne King John Presses His Luck Son of Henry II became king in 1199 Tried to further increase wealth & power ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Taxed all heavily Jailed enemies w/o trial Seized Church property Took power to name Bishops from Pope Pay Backs for King John But, I don’t WANT to! With Clergy & Nobles united against him, John was stuck June 15, 1215 he met with about 2,000 nobles in a meadow called Runnymede who had a list of demands John was forced to make the demands law or risk losing his throne The Magna Carta “Great Charter” Limited King’s power by giving some of it to the nobles ◦ No longer jail without just cause ◦ Had to consult nobles before raising taxes (“power of the purse”) ◦ This group of noble eventually became the Model Parliament (the earliest form of England’s Representative Government) Ironically ended up strengthening monarchy because now nobles supported it. THE 100 YEARS WAR Confusing Name & Amazing Story Instead of Small Land Disputes Now Entire Nations Go to War! Most famous example was The Hundred Years’ War ◦ Series of clashes 1337-1453 (only fought during good weather) ◦ England vs. France ◦ Lasted 116 years Causes: ◦ Control of French throne & lands ◦ Control of English Channel ◦ Control of trade (and wealth it brought) The War Drags On… One king after another on both sides England won most of battles French wouldn’t surrender Things got interesting in 1429 when a French peasant girl got involved… Joan of Arc French Dauphin Charles VII vs. English King Henry VI French peasant girl hears voices of Saints at age 12 Believes that God telling her to help save France Goes to Dauphin to offer her help. He refused. She returned the next year and with a small force, won several battles (despite being shot through the neck in one and the leg in another!) Major victory at Orleans Captured by Burgundians (allied with English) who put her on trial to avoid creating a martyr: ◦ Put her on trial for heresy & witch craft ◦ Then, burned her at the stake! Joan of Arc Opps! Turns out she was turned into a martyr after all. Inspired French to fight & unite. By 1453, English were driven from most of France, which was now strong and united. Joan became a saint and national heroine. Why do we care about the Hundred Years’ War? Changed balance of power in England and France (to Kings and away from feudalism) New types of warfare ◦ From a few knights to many foot soldiers ◦ From Hand-to-Hand Combat to Long Bow and Cannons ◦ Nationalism—feeling of national identity and pride With no chance of another European empire…where would these powerful nations look to expand their power?