WA ESOL: October 24, 2009 - California State University, Fullerton

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Academic Word Learning
In Context
Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman, Ph.D.
California State University, Fullerton
[email protected]
Website:
http://hssfaculty.fullerton.edu/mll/cbzimmerman/
Two 15-year olds from London were
asked which laws they think should
continue and which ones should not.


I dunno, there’s times when I think there
are a few laws I’d like to stop but. . .don’t
know any I’d like to bring in.
I don’t think I’d introduce many new ones
but I would abolish quite a few.
Corson, 1985, p. 77
Different Perspectives of
Academic Vocabulary
1.
English words of Greek and Latin origin
2.
Words needed in the classroom (Burke,
3.
Content area terms that build up
students’ background knowledge.
(Corson, 1985)
2003)
(Marzano & Pickering, 2005)
4.
Academic vocabulary includes (a) words that
refer to thinking and communicating, (b)
words that are common across subjects but
hold different meanings depending on the
subject, and (c) words that have everyday
meanings that are different from the
discipline-specific meanings. Word Generation:
http://wordgeneration.org/index.html
5.
Words identified by word frequency counts in
academic materials: UWL – Xue & Nation (1984) and
AWL - Coxhead, A. (2000).
Reading and Academic Vocabulary:
A Reciprocal Relationship
Koda, 2005
The Beginner’s Paradox:
You need words in order to read.
You need to read in order
to learn words. Laufer, 1991, Nation, 1990
Effective Vocabulary
Instruction
I.
Uses high interest materials; the
contexts are rich and the language
is authentic.
II.
Equips learners to notice the details
of word use
III.
Includes many opportunities to use
words in learner-centered
interaction.
High Interest Materials
The List Approach





reduce
associate
capture
release
exhale
The Interest Approach

To reduce bad breath
usually associated with
garlic or onions, do not
eat them at the same
time with fatty foods. If
you do, the fat will
capture their smell and
release it each time you
exhale.
1a. The Role of High Interest
Materials
in Inside Reading Articles
Sample Topics:
– Level 1

Science: Solving a Crime with Science: A
True Story
– Level 2

Engineering: Coober Pedy: Really Down
Under
– Level 3

Psychology: Child Prodigies
– Level 4

Physiology: Were Humans Born to Run?
1b. The Role of High Interest Materials
in Inside Reading Activities
Level 3 , p. 124
Complete the sentences about Albert Einstein
using the target vocabulary in the box.
concentrated
intelligence
a.
considerably
pursued
enormous
revealed
factor
normal
The ___________ __________ of Albert Einstein is now
very large
mental ability
well known, but it wasn’t so obvious when he was
young.
concentrated
factor
revealed
b.
considerably
intelligence
normal
enormous
pursued
Though it is ________ for children to speak before the
usual
c.
age of 3, Einstein didn’t say his first words until he was
nearly 4. . .
One _______ that led to his interest in physics sprang
thing
from an incident that occurred when he was only five.
His uncles showed him a compass. From then on,
Einstein ________ physics with great passion.
tried to understand
B. The Details of Word Use:
What does it mean to Know a Word?
3.
4.
1.
Meaning (s)
2.
Collocations
Grammatical Features
Register and Appropriateness
B. The Details of Word Use:
What does it mean to Know a Word?
3.
4.
1.
Meaning (s)
2.
Collocations
Grammatical Features
Register and Appropriateness
1. Meaning
Use authentic context to demonstrate a
word’s range of meaning and multiple
meanings
Example: objective
Inside Reading, Level 1, p. 128:
“During his 12th century travels through
China, Marco Polo supposedly saw people
using eyeglasses. . . . . .The objective of the
earliest lenses was to help people see
things that were close up so they could do
tasks like carving or sewing. . . .
Inside Reading : Level 1, p. 130
(continued)
Target word: objective
Match each game with its objective. Then tell a
partner how the two ideas are related.
1.
Soccer
a. to hit a ball over a net
2.
Golf
B. to throw a ball into a hoop
3.
Tennis
c. to hit a ball into a hole
4.
Golf
d. to kick a ball into a goal
1b. Multiple Meanings
Inside Reading : Level 1, p. 131
Target word: objective
Read these sentences. Cross out subjective
words so that the statements become
objective reports of news events.
1. The beloved prime minister gave a
brilliant 30-minute speech yesterday.
Continued
2.
I’m angry that taxpayers will face yet
another large, unwelcome tax
increase.
3.
The audience applauded wildly after
the best performance I’ve ever seen.
4.
I’m happy to report that the awful
man got what he deserved and was
arrested.
Still more about Meaning
Burgmeier, 2009: Level 1, p. 3
Target word: alteration
(and its word family)
Article: “The History of Bicycles”
“Bicycles first appeared in Scotland in the
early 1800s and were called velocipedes. . .
Around 1870 (Americans) began building
velocipedes. . .. But they made the
frameworks from hollow tubes. . .This
alteration made (them) much lighter.”
Meaning
Burgmeier, 2009: Level 1, p. 3
Work with a partner. Imagine that you
have borrowed a friend’s bicycle for
the weekend. Which things can you
alter? Which things cannot be altered
on a borrowed bicycle? Write A for
each item that is alterable. Write U
for each item is unalterable.
Word Level Practice
(cont)
The
 The
 The
 The
 The
 The
 The
 The

speed of the bicycle
color of the framework
height of the seat
design of the bicycle
size of the wheels
direction the bicycle turns
speed that the wheels turn
mirrors on the handlebars
Still more about Meaning
Burgmeier, 2009: Level 1, p. 118
D.
An annual event is one that occurs once a
year or is repeated every year. Which of
these occur annually?
Spring
New Year’s Day
A full moon
your birthday
a wedding
October
new classes
animal migration
family gatherings
Still more about Meaning
Level 1
1.
2.
3.
Unit 4, p. 48
military and
Unit 4, p. 49
Unit 5, p. 67
positive)
4.
(contrast the meanings of
civil).
(Use the term ambiguity)
(Multiple meanings for
Unit 5, p. 68 (Positive and negative
meaning s for exploit.)
2. Collocation
Zwier, 2009: Level 2, p. 22
Article: “Power of Branding”
Answer these questions. . .using the
verb in parentheses. Be sure to use a
preposition that collocates with it.
Refer to Reading 1 for information.
Compare answers with a partner.
Presenting Words in
Context
Collocation: Sentence Level
1.
Why are symbols like the rolls Royce
badge or the Harley-Davidson logo so
powerful? (register)
2.
Why does a weak brand harm the sales
of a product? (equate)
3.
Why would a stronger brand help the
shoe company mentioned in Paragraph 1
of the reading? (convert)
Still more about Collocation
Level 1
1.
Unit 2, p. 21, (collocations used with
priority) .
2.
Unit 2, p. 28 (collocations used with
implement - exercises G and H)
3. Grammar
Zwier, 2009: Level 2, p. 22
Target word: Despite
(and its word family)
Article: “The New Megalopolis”
Practice:
Write four sentences featuring information
you have learned about cities. Use the words
in parentheses in your sentences. (despite;
despite the fact that; in spite of/in spite of
the fact that.)
Still more about Grammar
Level 1
1.
Unit 1, p. 13 (paraphrase practice using
the word forms of individual)
2.
Unit 3, p. 35 (rewriting headlines using the
word forms of export)
3.
Unit 3, p. 42 (interpreting a chart, using
the word forms of administer)
4. Register and
Appropriateness
Inside Reading, Level 3, p. 125
Many academic words are also
considered formal words. Which of
the target words in this unit are more
formal synonyms of these informal
words? Be sure to use the right
forms of the target words.
challenge
reveal
pursue
intelligent
enormous
concentrate
technology
resource
Informal
1. Smart
2. To use
3. Huge
4. Uncover
5. Difficulty
factor
environment
considerable
utilize
normal
focus
expert
Formal
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
Still more about
Register and Appropriateness
Level 1
1. Unit 6, p. 81 (authentic practice with
informal use of the forms of technical)
Writing
and
Discussion Topics
Writing and Discussion Topics
Zwier, 2009, Level 2, p. 28
Topic: The Power of Branding
1. Reading 2 mentions young people who
express youthful rebellion by starting
companies. Do you think Reading 2 really
describes a new phenomenon or not?
Explain your answer and use specific
examples to support it.
Level 1
Solving a Crime with Science: A True
Story
Writing and Discussion Topics
authority contrary instance panel tape
conclude detect
logic
site technical
Consult establish motive specific
1.
Find an article in a newspaper or news
magazine that describes a crime. Describe
what happened, using as many target words
from this unit as possible.
Level 1
Writing and Discussion Topics (continued)
authority contrary instance panel tape
conclude detect
logic
site technical
Consult establish motive specific
2. In some countries, the media are given access to
information about crimes as details become
available. In other countries, the media may not
publish or broadcast information about a crime
investigation. Which do you think is the better
way? Why?
Level 3
Writing and Discussion Topics ( p. 128)
challenge
reveal
pursue
intelligence
enormous
concentrate
technology
resource utilize
factor
environment
considerable
normal
focus
expert
1. Interests and abilities seem to run in some
families. Is this the result of environmental or
hereditary factors? Comment on this using
examples from your own experience and from
the readings and exercises in this unit.
References
Burke, J. (2003). The English teacher’s
companion. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook
Heinemann.
Corson, D. (1985). The lexical bar. Oxford:
Pergamon Press.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list.
TESOL Quarterly 34, 213-238.
Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language
reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laufer, B. (1992). Reading in a foreign language:
How does L2 lexical knowledge interact with the
reader’s general academic ability. Journal of
Research in Reading. 152, 95-103.

Marzano, R., & Pickering, D. (2005). Building
academic vocabulary: Teacher's
manual. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Nation, ISP, (1990), Teaching and learning
vocabulary. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Word Generation:
http://wordgeneration.org/index.html
Xue, Guoyi & Nation, ISP (1984). A university
word list. Language Learning and
Communication, 3, 215-219.
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