TRS 2 -17 - Haiku Learning

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Introduction to Scripture Studies

Unit 9: Overview of the New

Testament

Bible Timeline

• Early World

• Patriarchs

• Egypt & Exodus

• Desert Wanderings

• Conquest & Judges

• Royal Kingdom

• Divided Kingdom

• Exile

• Return from Exile

• Maccabean Revolt

• Messianic Fulfillment

• Church

Messianic Fulfillment

• Herod the Great, then Herod Antipas,

Tetrarch of Galilee

• Jews are home, waiting for coming of the

Messiah, but who is the dominant world power?

• Rome

• How has God quietly prepared the world for this next stage in His plan?

Messianic Fulfillment

• Common language

• Fabulous system of roads

• Hebrew Scriptures available in common language

• Which books tell the story of Messianic

Fulfillment?

• The Gospels!

• Acts & the Epistles tell story of the early

Church.

Messianic Fulfillment

• The Primary source material about Jesus and earliest followers is the

New Testament

:

• The New Testament contains 27 books—6 classifications

• Most important are the four gospels

• Composed over a period of about 70 years

• Testament means “covenant”

• Jesus Christ represents the new covenant/ messianic fulfillment

How is NT related to OT?

• The covenant theme is central in the

Old Testament

:

• 46 books of inspired writings

• Began with the call to Abraham

• Many examples of God’s loving kindness

• Reveals how unfaithful the Chosen People were to the covenant

• God’s covenant was to be a new testament sealed in the blood of his Son -

Jesus is the “New Testament”

• NT continues and fulfills the Old Testament

Remember . . .

- Canon of the Bible

: official list of books the Church considers its inspired writings

- 46 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books

- In order to be included in the Canon, the following criteria had to be met:

• Apostolic Origin

• Widespread Acceptance

• Conformity to the Rule of Faith

Criteria for Selection to Canon

1. Apostolic Origin

-inspired by actual witnesses to original 12

-only Mt, Mk, Jn, Lk written in 1 st century; others were 2 nd century—too late for eyewitnesses

2. Widespread Acceptance

-widely circulated & accepted by Church at that time

3. Conformity to the Rule of Faith

True to traditional faith & teachings of Jesus; no heresies

New Testament

The Gospels—the Good News of Jesus from 4 points of view

Matthew, Mark, Luke, John

Acts of the Apostles (chapter 2 of Luke’s gospel)

A history of the early Church after Jesus’ ascension

The Epistles

Letters written by the Apostles tell us how to live as Christians

Book of Revelation

Describes Church & God’s kingdom in images & symbols

(1) The New Testament: The

Gospels and (2) Acts of the Apostles

• Matthew

• Mark

• Luke

• John

• Why are there 4 gospels about Jesus Christ?

• 4 variations/different points of view to find complete understanding

• Acts of the Apostles (written by Luke)

The New Testament: The Pauline

Epistles (13)

• Written to communities/churches

– Romans

– Corinthians 1

– Corinthians 2

– Galatians

– Ephesians

– Philippians

– Colossians

– Thessalonians 1

– Thessalonians 2

The New Testament: The Pauline

Epistles (13)

• Written to individuals

– Timothy 1

– Timothy 2

– Titus

– Philemon

The New Testament: Letter to the

Hebrews (1)

• Probably not written by Paul

• Not a letter; a homily

The New Testament: Catholic

Epistles (7)

• “catholic”—universal; for all; to the entire Church

– James

– Peter 1

– Peter 2

– John 1

– John 2

– John 3

– Jude

The New Testament: The Book of

Revelation (1)

• Revealed to John

• Apocalyptic: visions

• Highly symbolic; secret code

• Hope and encouragement for early persecuted Church

How is OT organized?

• 4 types of books—

• The Law/Torah

• History

• Wisdom

• Prophecy

NT organized in same way

• The Law/Torah--??

• The 4 Gospels

• History--??

• Acts of the Apostles

• Wisdom--??

• The Epistles

• Prophecy--??

• The Book of Revelation

Formation of the Gospels

-Three stages involved in the formation of the gospels:

1.)

Public life and teaching of Jesus

2.)

Oral tradition and preaching by the apostles and early disciples of Jesus

3.)

Written gospels themselves

Formation of the Gospels

Stage 1: Public Life

-

Apostles were eyewitnesses to Jesus’ life and ministry that helped to form and preserve the gospel in the first stage

Stage 2: Oral Tradition

-

Oral preaching took three forms:

1.) Kerygma - preaching to nonbelievers

2.) Didache - teachings

3.) Liturgy - worship of the Christians

Formation of the Gospels

-

Oral preaching had to be committed to writing for three major reasons:

1.) End of the world was not coming as quickly as the early

Christians thought it would

2.) Distortions were setting in

3.) More instruction was needed

Formation of the Gospels

Stage 3: New Testament Writings

-

Earliest New Testament writings are letters of St. Paul

- Gospels and various other writings such as Acts of the

Apostles and Revelations followed

The Gospels

• Tell the same story—good news of Jesus

Christ!

• From 4 different points of view, each writing to a different audience

• Synoptic—3 gospels that ‘see with the same vision/eye’—Matthew, Mark, Luke

• Together, all give a complete view of Jesus,

His life, and teachings; the gospels never contradict each other.

Mark

• Probably earliest written—64-70 AD

• Audience--

• Gentile Christians in Rome (being persecuted)

• Jesus is leader of New Exodus—why?

• Save from suffering under Roman persecution

• Mark’s source was probably Peter

• Shortest, simple, straightforward story; fast pace—word ‘immediately’ used <40 times

Matthew

• Audience--

• Jewish Christians

• Emphasis--

• Jesus is the heir of David’s kingdom (check out the genealogy at beginning)

• Jesus is the Messiah for whom all Jews have waited

• Presents Jesus’ moral teachings & vision of the Church

Luke

• Audience--

• Gentile Christian converts

• “beloved physician,” Gentile convert himself

• Emphasizes Jesus’ ministry to all nations; all peoples, not just Jews

• Luke traveled with Paul

• Luke wanted to give an “orderly account” of Jesus’ life and teachings

Luke

• Luke is not an eyewitness

• Women & outcasts very prominent

• Possibly gotten details from Mary?

• Unique stories of Jesus’ conception and birth

– The Annunciation, baby in manger, shepherds,

Jesus lost in Temple

John

• Emphasis on divinity of Jesus

• Jesus is the Word of God Incarnate

• Let’s read the opening of John’s Gospel

• Last gospel written

• Not a synoptic. Why?

• Fills in picture of Jesus not mentioned in the synoptics

– Divinity of Jesus; Word Incarnate

How did . . .

• the symbols of the 4 evangelists develop?

• Read Supplementary Reading #1, page

315—Jerome,

Against Jovinian

, 1:26; plus, illustration, page 316

• Matthew—man (opens w/genealogy)

• Mark—lion

(opens w/voice crying out in desert)

• Luke—bull/calf (references the priesthood)

• John—eagle

(soars aloft/lofty opening language)

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