Glossary of Literary Terms that you should know by the time you

Glossary of Literary Terms
that you should know by the time you complete English I…in a perfect world 
See also: The All-American Glossary of Lit Terms and Glossary of Lit Term for Carson-Newman College
Alliteration – (8th Grade) Alliteration is the repetition of the first letter: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
Allude / Allusion – (8th Grade) a reference to another story or poem: a reference to another well-known work of
art. In the story "Go On or Die", Harriet Tubman is called “the Moses of her people”. In this way, the story refers to
the Bible’s story of Moses, who led his people out of slavery. The most common allusions are to the Bible, to
Shakespeare, or to Greek Mythology.
Allude is the verb form: The author alludes to the story of Moses.
Allusion is the noun form: The author has made an allusion.
Example: She was as lost as Dorothy or Alice. This sentence alludes to The Wizard of Oz and Alice in Wonderland.
Anecdote – (8th Grade) is a very short story that makes a point or serves as an example. Anecdotes can be helpful
in a research paper because they personalize the issue, but the argument cannot rest entirely on anecdotes.
Antagonist – (8th Grade) the person who is against the main character in the story: the “bad guy”
Antonyms – (8th Grade) words that mean nearly the opposite of each other
Archaic Language – (9th Grade) (ar-KAY-ik) Archaic language refers to words and phrases that are no longer
being used. In Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet, we encounter such words as coz, God-den, Marry! thee and
thy, and many others.
Article – (9th Grade) See Newspaper Genres
Aside – (9th Grade) An aside is when an actor speaks to the side - as though he was talking to himself. The other
actors on stage ignore the speaker, as though they can't hear him. We study aside when we read Romeo
and Juliet.
Autobiography – (8th Grade) is a life story written by the person who is the story’s main character. Examples in
8th grade include "The Dogs Could Teach Me" by Gary Paulsen or "Camp Harmony" by Monica Stone.
Ballad – (8th Grade) a poem or song that tells a story such as "Paul Revere's Ride", "Barbara Frietchie", or
"Cremation of Sam McGee"
Biography – (8th Grade) a true story of someone’s life. In eighth grade, we read such biographies as "Go On or Die"
and Anne Frank.
Blank Verse – (9th Grade) is poetry without rhyme or meter. See examples.
Character – (8th Grade) the people or animals in the story (or occasionally, objects, as in The Brave Little Toaster).
Characterization – (8th Grade) the techniques used by a writer to reveal the personality of a character.
Chronological Order – (8th Grade) writing in the order that it happened. This is one common method of organizing
a story or an essay.
Climax – (8th Grade) See Plot
Comedy – (9th Grade) Early drama was divided into comedy, tragedy, and history. A comedy ended with a happy
ending, such as a couple marrying. It doesn’t really include slapstick such as the Three Stooges or Dumb and
Dumber; the term is more what we would call a romantic comedy.
Comic Relief – (9th Grade) In a tragedy or serious drama, writers sometimes include a bit of comedy to give the
reader or viewer some relief from the seriousness of it all.
Complications – (8th Grade) See Plot
Conflict – (8th Grade) Conflict is the struggle between the character and other forces. Conflict is often thought
about these three ways:
Character vs. Character: the character must deal with an enemy or a competitor. In the story "Raymond's Run", the
main character, Squeaky, is a racer who has to deal with Gretchen, another girl who is very fast. Squeaky
also has to deal with other kids who make fun of her brother.
Character vs. Environment: the character must deal with the challenges of society or nature. Hatchet by Gary
Paulsen is often thought of, but also think of how characters struggled with their environment in The
Outsiders by S.E. Hinton.
Character vs. Self: In the story "Raymond's Run", the main character is a character named Squeaky, a girl who has a
negative attitude about other people. In the story, she learns that many people really aren't so bad.
However, conflict is also divided in these two ways:
External conflict describes a situation in which a character struggles against people or things around him.
Internal conflict describes a situation in which the character must deal with a problem that exists inside himself or
herself: a bad attitude, a disease, alcoholism, or perhaps a decision the character must make.
Connotation – (8th Grade) The "feeling that a word carries with it, something beyond the dictionary definition. The
word odor means a smell, but it often carries a negative connotation - the smell isn't pleasant.
Couplet – (9th Grade) is a rhyming pattern in poetry in which pairs of lines rhyme - see examples.
Dialogue – (8th Grade) Dialogue is the conversation between characters in a story. In ordinary prose, the writer
encloses the words spoken in quotation marks. Mark said, "This has been my best summer ever." Typically, a writer
also begins a new paragraph with each new speaker.
Diary – (8th Grade) a journal written by an individual, such as Anne Frank.
Diction – (8th Grade) the distinctive tone or tenor of an author’s writings. Diction is not just a writer's choice of words
it can include the mood, attitude, dialect and style of writing. Diction is usually judged with reference to the prevailing
standards of proper writing and speech and is seen as the mark of quality of the writing. It is also understood as the
selection of certain words or phrases that become peculiar to a writer.
Certain writers in the modern day and age use archaic terms such as ‘thy’, ‘thee’ and ‘wherefore’ to imbue a
Shakespearean mood to their work.
Didactic – (9th Grade) refers to a story that was written less for it value in reading enjoyment and more for its value
in instruction or conversion of belief. It is similar to propaganda.
Direct quotations – (8th Grade) A report of the exact words of an author or speaker. A direct quotation is placed
inside quotation marks.
Editorial – (9th Grade) See Newspaper Genres
Epic – (9th Grade) A long, heroic story written in verse with the following characteristics:
Epic Hero: The main character of the epic is a physically impressive hero of national or historical importance; he or
she becomes larger-than life figure; the main character is usually male. The epic hero embodies the ideals of a
nation or race.
The plot will focus on heroic deeds and events important to a culture or nation, such as the founding of the country; a
series of great achievements or events; or a quest or journey undertaken in search of something important
A vast setting taking in much of the known world and sometimes the Land of the Dead
The epic is written in a formal, elevated style.
Watch this short film discussing the attributes of an epic: "The Hero's Journey /
Monomyth". YouTube:Cornertalker. (7:18)
Essay – (8th Grade) a short writing on a particular theme or subject. It usually is structured with an introduction,
supporting arguments, and a conclusion.
Exaggeration – (8th Grade) "The Cremation of Sam McGee", similar to hyperbole.
Exposition – (8th Grade) See Plot
External Conflict – (8th Grade) see conflict
Fable – (8th Grade) A brief story or poem that is told to present a moral, or practical lesson. The characters in fables
are often animals who speak or act like human beings.
Fiction – (8th Grade) A story that is fiction is one that is made up; nonfiction is true. Remember: Fiction is Fake.
Figure of Speech – (8th Grade) A figure of speech is a word or phrase that departs from everyday literal language
for the sake of comparison, emphasis, clarity, or freshness. Metaphor and simile are the two most commonly used
figures of speech, but things like hyperbole, puns, and personification are also figures of speech. Used well, figures
of speech greatly enhance your fiction, and can be a very economical way of getting an image or a point across, but
used incorrectly, they will confuse the reader.
The expression "not playing with a full deck" uses figurative language to explain that a person is crazy.
Flashback – (8th Grade) The play Anne Frank begins long after most of the action takes place. Mr. Frank arrives at
their hiding place after the war is over. When he finds Anne's diary, he begins to remember and the rest of the play is
a flashback.
Foil – (9th Grade) A character that is contrasts another character. For example, if the main character is a coward,
then the foil will be extremely brave to contrast him. We study the term foil while reading Romeo and Juliet in the
9th grade and again while reading Antigone in the 12th grade.
Folk Tale – (8th Grade) See "Legends, Folktales, and Tall Tales." a tale or legend originating and traditional among
a people or folk, especially one forming part of the oral tradition of the common people. Any belief or story passed on
traditionally, especially one considered to be false or based on superstition.
Foreshadowing – (8th Grade) Foreshadowing is little hints about what's going to happen. In Roald Dahl's short
story, "The Landlady", the main character seems to remember the other names in the guest book, and seems to
remember that something nasty happened to them. The reader should also wonder if something nasty is going to
happen to him.
Frame Story – (8th Grade) the beginning and ending parts are called the frame story when the larger middle is a
long flashback or a tale told by one of the characters. For example, the 8th grade story "The Inn of Lost Time" begins
and ends with two unemployed samurai stopping at an inn, where one of them tells a story about his youth. The
play Anne Frank begins and ends years after most of the events have taken place. In the senior novel Their Eyes
Were Watching God, the main character Janie tells her life story to a friend.
Free Verse – (8th Grade) verse free of rhyming or meter - the poet essentially writes however he or she wants
without restrictions. See examples.
Genre – (8th Grade) (ZHAWN-ruh) different types or kinds of writing:
Genres of Writing
Genres of Expository
Genres of Fiction
Genres of Narrative Nonfiction
lebungsroman (life story)
realistic fiction
science fiction
Many of these genres are broken down into sub-genres. For example, fantasy can be broken down into urban fantasy,
medieval fantasy,
Haiku – (9th Grade) is a type of poem using 17 Japanese characters. A similar poem has developed in English using
syllables instead of characters.
Hyperbole – (9th Grade) [hi-PER-boh-lee] a literary device wherein the author uses specific words and phrases that
exaggerate and overemphasize the basic crux of the statement in order to produce a grander, more noticeable effect.
The purpose of hyperbole is to create a larger-than-life effect and overly stress a specific point. Such sentences
usually convey an action or sentiment that is generally not practically/ realistically possible or plausible but helps
emphasize an emotion.
“I am so tired I cannot walk another inch” or “I’m so sleepy I might fall asleep standing here”.
Iambic Pentameter – (9th Grade) A type of verse with two things: First, it has specific beat of two syllables with
emphasis on the second syllable (ta-DUM). Secondly, it has five of these pairs per line (ta-DUM ta-DUM ta-DUM taDUM ta-DUM). Iambic pentameter is used in Romeo and Juliet.
Imagery – (8th Grade) is language that appeals to the senses. First taught with the story "Mrs. Flowers"
Consider, for example, Edwin Robinson’s poem “The House on the Hill”. The poet appeals to the senses of
vision and sound when he writes:
Through broken walls and gray
The winds blow bleak and shrill
Internal Conflict – (8th Grade) see conflict
Inversion – (8th Grade) refers to the practice of changing the conventional placement of words. It is a literary
practice typical of the older classical poetry genre. In present day literature it is usually used for the purpose of laying
emphasis this literary device is more prevalent in poetry than prose because it helps to arrange the poem in a manner
that catches the attention of the reader not only with its content but also with its physical appearance; a result of the
peculiar structuring
In the much known and read Paradise Lost, Milton wrote:
“Of Man's First Disobedience, and the Fruit
Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste
Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,
Sing Heav'nly Muse. . .”
Irony (9th Grade) Irony occurs when there is a clash between two things:
When what is expected and what results clash, it is called situational irony. One would expect that a kidnapped child
would be frightened and his kidnappers would be cruel, but this is the opposite of what is encountered in O.
Henry's tale, "The Ransom of Red Chief".
When what is said clashes with what is meant, it's called verbal irony.
When the reader or viewer knows something that the character does not, it is called dramatic irony. The great
suspense-film director Alfred Hitchcock said there's no suspense in putting a bomb under a character's chair
unless everyone in the audience knows it's there and the character doesn't. That's a great example of
dramatic irony.
See humorous examples.
Legend, Myth and Tall Tale (8th Grade) There is some overlap between these types of stories: Paul Bunyan may
be considered a legend, for instance.
A folk tale is a story that is passed down orally through generations, often told to children, has characters that are
clearly good or bad; has magical events such as wishes or talking animals; often deals with things in threes
(three bears, three trips up the beanstalk); often begins "Once upon a time..." See more details.
A legend is a story handed down orally amongst a particular people, but unable to be proven as historical. The tales
of King Arthur are famous examples.
A myth is a story concerned with gods and goddesses, and often tries to explain some natural event, such as the
rising of the sun, the birth of the world. Myths are usually strongly associated with a particular culture.
A tall tale is a story with great exaggeration. Paul Bunyan is probably the greatest American example.
Letter to the Editor – (9th Grade) See Newspaper Genres
Limerick (8th Grade) A five-line poem with a specific rhythm. They are usually funny and often
dirty. See examples.
Literal Language – (8th Grade) Language is literal when it means exactly what it says, without symbolism,
metaphor, simile, etc. The opposite of literal language is figurative language.
Lyric – (8th Grade) a type of poetry that is like a song, especially one that pours out the poet's thoughts and feelings
Magic Realism – (9th Grade) a literary genre or style associated especially with Latin America that
incorporates fantastic or mythical elements into otherwise realistic fiction —called also magical realism
Metamorphosis – (8th Grade)
Metaphor – (9th Grade) A comparison in which an object or person is said to be something else.
For example, when Romeo stands beneath Juliet's balcony, he says:
But, soft! What light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun
Here, Juliet is said to be the sun despite the fact that she has nothing physically in common with a nuclear
furnace hundreds of thousands of miles away. See also Simile.
Meter – (8th Grade) Meter is a rhythmic pattern, a regular and controlled repetition of stressed and unstressed
syllables. See examples.
Monologue – (8th Grade) A long, uninterrupted speech (in a narrative or drama) that is spoken in the presence of
other characters. Unlike a soliloquy and most aides, a monologue is heard by other characters.
Motivation – (8th Grade) The desires, emotions, or beliefs that urge a person to do the things that he or she does.
Myth – (8th Grade) See Legend, Myth and Tall Tale
Narration – (8th Grade) The kind of writing or speaking that tells a story
Narrative poem – (8th Grade) Poetry that tells a story. One kind of narrative poem is the epic, a long poem which
sets form the heroic ideals of a particular society.
Newspaper Genres – (9th Grade) Newspaper genres are studied in the To Kill a Mockingbird unit.
News Article – (9th Grade) Articles in a newspaper typically run on the front page or in the front page section. Its
purpose is to present an unbiased presentation of the story. It may be written by a staff member of the newspaper or
it may have been purchased from another news agency, such as the Associated Press. It typically features a
headline, a byline, and a dateline.
Letter to the Editor – (9th Grade) typically, a letter to the editor is obvious that it contains personal opinion; usually
ends with the name and town of the writer; usually appears on the back pages of the front-page section. The writer of
a letter to the editor is not paid, but writes only to express his or her opinion.
Editorial – (9th Grade) A newspaper editorial obviously contains personal opinion; it could be written by the staff of
the newspaper or it could be written by a commentator paid by the newspaper. Typically, editorials appear on the
back pages of the front-page section.
Nonfiction – (8th Grade) Any prose narrative that tells about things as they actually happened or that posses factual
information about something. Autobiography and biography are the most common forms.
Nonfiction Narrative – (9th Grade) A non-fiction narrative tells a true story in a lively, story-like fashion. The writer of
a non-fiction narrative will use setting, characterization, and conflict in much the same way as a fiction writer would
Novel – (8th Grade) A novel is a fictional story that is longer than a short story; it cannot be read in a single sitting. It
is in prose, not poetry. It is usually published in book form.
Onomatopoeia – (9th Grade) [ON-oh MON-oh PEE-uh] the quality of a word that actually sounds like what it
means - buzz, clink, etc.
Parable – (9th Grade) a brief and often simple narrative that illustrates a moral or religious lesson. Some of the bestknown parables are in the Bible, where Jesus uses them to teach his disciples. For example, in "The Parable of the
Good Seed," a farmer plants a garden. As the farmer sleeps, someone sows weeds in his field to destroy the farmer's
crops. However, when he learns of his misfortune, he does not demolish his entire garden just to remove the weeds.
The farmer waits patiently until harvest time and gathers his wheat after the weeds have first been collected and
destroyed. The lesson to be learned in this parable is to not be quick to annihilate evil; it will in deserving time receive
its punishment. Some other parables in the Bible are "The Parable of the Prodigal Son" and "The Parable of the
Mustard Seed."
Personification – (8th Grade) When a writer gives the characteristics of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea,
it is called personification. In the short story "There will come Soft Rains", the author writes about the house as
though it were alive and had a personality.
Persuasion – (8th Grade) The type of speaking or writing that is intended to make its audience adopt a certain
opinion or pursue an action or do both.
Primary Document – (9th Grade), also called a primary source, is any letter, speech, law, newspaper article, or any
other written material that was created during the time period that is being researched. It is a document that
does not have the benefit of hindsight, later interpretation or evaluation. For example, it is Lincoln's
"Gettysburg Address" and not an encyclopedia article about Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address."
Plot – (8th Grade) The events that take place in a story. Often these follow a specific pattern a seen below. See The
Wizard of Oz as an example.
Exposition – the beginning of the plot that introduces the characters and their main problem
Complications – sometimes called "Rising Action" - Things start happening.
Climax – The part of the plot that has the most action, the crisis of the theme, often just before the
end. In Anne Frank, the climax occurs when the Nazis discover the two families' hiding place.
Resolution or Denouement ("day-new-MAW') – The problem gets resolved.
Poetry – (8th Grade) Traditional poetry is language arranged in lines, with a regular rhythm and often a definite
rhyme scheme. Nontraditional poetry does away with regular rhythm and rhyme, although is usually is set up in lines.
The richness of its suggestions, the sounds of its words, and the strong feelings evoked by its line are often said to be
what distinguish poetry from other forms of literature. Poetry is difficult to define, but most people know when they
read it. See examples.
Point of View – (8th Grade) the vantage point through which a story is presented by the author to the reader.
In first person point of view, the story is told in first person, with a narrator who is a character in
the story. Readers can get into only the narrator's thoughts to know what she or he is thinking
about the action or other characters in the story. For example, William Faulkner's "That Evening
Sun" is told in first person.
In third person point of view, the narration is about the characters in the book and thus is told
using third person pronouns--he, she, they, etc. However, third person point of view can have
different forms.
o An objective point of view presents only action and dialogue; readers do not get into the
thoughts of any characters. A good example of an objective point of view is Shirley
Jackson's "The Lottery."
o In limited omniscient point of view, readers get into only one or two characters'
thoughts. John Updike's "Separating" uses a limited omniscient point of view since
readers get only into Richard's thoughts.
o In omniscient point of view, readers get into several characters' thoughts, as in Jane
Austen's Pride and Prejudice.
Knowing the point of view is important since it helps determine characters' motives and also their
understanding (or lack of understanding) about the action and other characters in the story.
Prologue – (9th Grade) is an introduction - in a play, often in verse and introducing the theme; in a book or movie,
often introducing events that happened before the story opened. We study the prologue of Romeo and Juliet in ninth
Prose – (8th Grade) This is "normal" writing - writing in paragraphs. It is not poetry or drama.
Protagonist – (8th Grade) the main character, the character who the story is about; "the good guy."
Pun – (9th Grade)
Puns are a very popular literary device wherein a word is used in a manner to suggest two or more possible
meanings. This is generally done to the effect of creating humor or irony or wryness. Puns can also refer to words
that suggest meanings of similar-sounding words. The trick is to make the reader have an “ah!” moment and discover
2 or more meanings
Santa’s helpers are known as subordinate Clauses.
Realistic Fiction – (9th Grade) Realistic fiction is an attempt to portray characters and events as they really could
be. Realistic fiction includes stories that could happen in the real world, in a time and setting that are possible, with
characters that are true to life. We first encounter the term Realistic Fiction when with To Kill a Mockingbird in the 9th
grade and return to it in the 10th grade with Of Mice and Men.
Rebuttal – (8th Grade) the portion of an essay or speech that acknowledges the opponent's position and gives
evidence or argument against it. A rebuttal is required on the ACT essay.
Refrain – (9th Grade) A refrain is short group of words that repeats throughout a song, poem, or speech. Martin
Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech makes heavy use of this strategy.
Resolution – (8th Grade) See Plot
Rhyme Scheme – (8th Grade)
The rhyme scheme is the practice of rhyming words placed at the end of the lines in the prose/ poetry. Rhyme
scheme refers to the order in which particular words rhyme. If the alternate words rhyme, it is an “a-b-a-b” rhyme
scheme, which means “a” is the rhyme for the lines 1 and 3 and “b” is the rhyme affected in the lines 2 and 4.
Roses are red (a)
Violets are blue (b)
Beautiful they all may be (c)
But I love you (b)
The above is an “a-b-c-b” rhyme scheme.
Rhythm and Rhyme – (8th Grade) refers to a pattern of rhymes that is created by using words that produce the
same, or similar sounds. Rhythm and rhyme together refer to the recurrence of similar sounds in prose and poetry,
creating a musical, gentle effect.
“I am a teapot
Short and stout;
This is my handle
And this is my spout.
When the water’s boiling
Hear me shout;
Just lift me up
And pour me out”
Rising Action – (8th Grade) See Plot
Romance – (9th Grade) a novel or other prose narrative depicting heroic or marvelous deeds, pageantry,
romantic exploits, etc., usually in a historical or imaginary setting.
Setting – (8th Grade) when and where the story takes place. it also refers to the mood created by the setting.
Short Story – (8th Grade) "A brief prose tale," as Edgar Allan Poe labeled it. This work of narrative fiction may
contain description, dialogue and commentary, but usually plot functions as the engine driving the art. The best short
stories, according to Poe, seek to achieve a single, major, unified impact.
Simile – (9th Grade) A comparison in which an object or person is said to be like something else.
For example, in To Kill a Mockingbird, the narrator tells that:
ladies bathed before noon, after their three o’clock naps,
and by nightfall were like soft tea-cakes with frostings of
sweat and sweet talcum.
Here, the ladies are said to be like cakes to help the reader see how hot Maycomb could be and
the routine of some of the women as they responded to the conditions. See
also Metaphor.
Soliloquy – (9th Grade) (so LILL ick wee) a longer speech in a play in which a character appears to be talking to
himself or herself. Notice the word's similarity to the word "solo".
Sonnet – (9th Grade) a type of poem with fourteen lines. Usually, this consists of four quatrains and a couplet. See
details and examples.
Speaker – (8th Grade) the “narrator” of the poem.
Standard English – (8th Grade) “proper” English – not slang or dialect
Stanza – (8th Grade) a stanza is to poetry what a paragraph is to prose.
Stereotype – (8th Grade) A character who is so ordinary or unoriginal that the character seems like an oversimplified
representation of a type, gender, class, religious group, or occupation. (stock character)
Suspense – (8th Grade) a feeling of tension because the reader or viewer doesn't know what's going to happen. In
the short story, "The Monkey's Paw" or "The Landlady", the reader feels suspense because he or she doesn't know
the outcome.
Symbol – (8th Grade) a person or object that has meaning beyond their obvious or literal meanings.
Synonyms – (8th Grade) words with almost the same meaning.
Tall tale – (8th Grade) See Legend, Myth and Tall Tale
Theme – (8th Grade) Themes are the ideas explored in a work, rather than the events that happen during the story
(which would be plot). Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work. The theme
is the message of the story.
Examples of Themes in Cinema and Television
Beauty and the Beast / Shrek / Shallow Hal
Looks are less important that what is in the heart.
The Breakfast Club
People who are different could learn to get along,
but society divides us.
Follow the science, you'll find the truth.
Harry and the Hendersons
Hunting is a sin.
1. Some things are better left alone.
2. Stick together until the end.
Lord of the Rings
1 Even the smallest person can make a huge
2 Giving up or despairing is wrong because the
ending can never be known.
October Sky
Success is possible if a person wants it badly
Rocky III
When a person gets soft, they lose the goal of their
dreams, because there will always be someone
who wants it more.
Tone – (8th Grade) Tone is the mood created in a story. Tone is the attitude the narrator or writer takes toward the
characters and events.
Tragedy – (9th Grade) A play, movie, novel, or other story that is serious and which the characters come to an
unhappy end. The main character is usually dignified and courageous, but has a serious character flaw.
Understatement – (8th Grade) refers to the practice of drawing attention to a fact that is already obvious and
noticeable. Understating a fact is usually done by way of sarcasm, irony, wryness or any other form of dry humor.
Understating something is akin to exaggerating its obviousness as a means of humor.
The phrase, “Oh! I wonder if he could get any later; I am free all day long”. Said in a sarcastic tone it indicates that the
speaker obviously means the opposite of the literal meaning.
Unreliable narrator – (8th Grade) Usually, when a narrator tells a story, the reader can trust what they say, but
sometimes an author will trick readers by having a narrator that is mad, lies, or just has a strong point of view. The
reader can't take it for granted that what the narrator says is the undeniable truth. We see this in the eighth-grade
story, "The Tell-Tale Heart".
Sense and Sensib
When women han
with their heads, t
had handled them
With Great power
Star Wars
1 Good and evil a
2 The spiritual is s
The X-Files
The world is a stra
up for their own da