Sept 10th, 2015
Warm up #9
What do you think
this image is about?
Write at least 3
about the image.
1.Warm up #9
2.Notes-Movements in the 1700s
3.Philosophers matrix
Pre-AP: Test Review (due Tues)
Regular: Test Review (due Tues)
Social/Political Movements in the 1700’s
The Great Awakening
The Enlightenment
The Great Awakening
• Religious revival that swept through
• Traveling preachers called on colonists to
examine their lives during huge, outdoor
church services
• Colonists felt that God could speak
directly to the people, not just to
preachers, kings, or those in power.
• People began to question the authority
of their religious leaders and later, their
political leaders.
The Enlightenment
• 18th century scientific movement
that used reason & logic
(Scientific Method)
• People began to question their
government leaders
• The concepts of the social
contract, limited government,
the consent of the governed, and
separation of powers
• Desire for more self-government
• “[Man], hath by nature a power,
not only to preserve his property,
that is, his life, liberty and estate,
against the injuries and attempts
of other men;”
• “The end of law is not to
abolish or restrain, but to
preserve and enlarge freedom.
For in all the states of created
beings capable of law, where
there is no law, there is no
2nd Treatise on Government 1690
John Locke
• It is natural for people
to want to protect his
freedom & property
from others.
• Laws exist to protect
our God-given
freedoms (inalienable
rights) from being
taken away (by the
govt or others)
Thomas Hobbes
• An absolute Sovereign
[King] is necessary… for
the state of nature [time
before laws]… “is worst
of all, with continual fear,
and danger of violent
death and the life of man
[without the sovereign] is
, solitary, poor, nasty,
brutish and short”
Leviathan 1654
• People need Kings
(leaders) to protect us
from each other…
• Without government,
we live in constant
fear of death because
men are naturally
greedy & selfish
Charles de Montisquieu
• Every man in an executive position of • Kings (officials) are
power “is apt to abuse it, and to carry
his authority as far as it will go”…
• Therefore, when the legislative,
judicial & executive powers are united
in the same person, there can be no
• Because he could enact tyrannical
laws, give partiality [favoritism] in
judging those under the law, or
execute laws in a tyrannical manner.”
The Spirit of Laws 1748
eventually going to abuse
their power…
• There is no freedom if
one person has the power
to make, enforce &
interpret laws.
• He could easily make
laws to benefit himself or
treat his friends special.
Thomas Hooker
• “…where a people are
gathered together, the word
of God requires that to
maintain the peace and union
of such a people, there should
be an orderly and decent
Government established
according to God, to order and
dispose of the affairs of the
people at all seasons as
occasion shall require…”
Fundamental Orders of
Connecticut 1639
• A Government must
set up a constitution
that follows God’s
laws in order for
people to live in a
peaceful society.
William Blackstone
"Every new tribunal [court],
erected for the decision of
facts, without the
intervention of a jury ... is a
step towards establishing
aristocracy [rule by the
wealthy], the most
oppressive of absolute
Commentaries on Laws 1765
• If we don’t have a jury
of our peers involved
in our courts, then
only the wealthy will
be ruling the
• The common people
will have no say.
William Penn
• "It is great Wisdom in
Princes [rulers]…, not to
strain Points [laws] too high
with their people. For
whether the People have a
Right to oppose them or
not, they are ever sure to
attempt it when things are
carried too far;…”
Charter of Liberties 1701
• It is wise for
Government officials
to not make too many
laws over the people.
• If they think they are
being treated unfairly,
they will naturally rise
up to oppose (revolt)
What’s the Point?
• These thinkers ideas
contributed to the
spirit of the