11.03-Essa Ahmed-Sultan Ahmed-Omar Ibrahim

Created by:
Essa Ahmed Ali
Sultan Ahmed Sultan
Omar Ibrahim Saleh
Fractional distillation is done in
petroleum refineries, chemical
plants and natural gas processing
plants. It is a continuous steady
task, as input and output is a
constant process. The fractional
industrial distillation is normally
done in huge, vertical columns
called fractionating towers. They
are also called distillation
is the separation of petroleum products into a
separate component according to their boiling
points where the lowest boiling point liquid will be
distilled 1st.
heat source, such as a hot plate with a bath, and ideally
with a magnetic stirrer.
distilling flask, typically a round-bottom flask
receiving flask, often also a round-bottom flask
fractionating column
distillation head
thermometer and adapter if needed
condenser, such as a Liebig condenser, Graham condenser
or Allihn condenser
vacuum adapter (not used in image to the right)
boiling chips, also known as anti-bumping granules
Standard laboratory glassware with ground glass joints,
e.g. quickfit apparatus.
It is a manufacturing process that separates the
different components in a chemical mixture according
to their different boiling points.
The liquid is raised to boiling and vapors pass through
a tubular column where temperature is gradually
lowered along its length.
Components (fractions) with a higher boiling point
condense on the column and return to the solution.
Fractions with a lower boiling point pass through the
column and are collected.
Gasoline, kerosene and naphtha are fractions
separated from crude oil using fractional distillation.
a) Light Distillates
Naphtha, Kerosene
b) Middle
Light gas oil, Heavy gas oil
c) Residue
further processed into refinery fuels,
heavy fuel oil, waxes, greases,
asphalts [the lighter the stuff the
higher the price]
The components of crude oil are
petrol, tar, oil, dissolved gases and
kerosene also known as petroleum.
The oil we find underground is called crude oil.
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons - from
almost solid to gaseous. These were produced
when tiny plants and animals decayed under
layers of sand and mud millions of years ago.
Crude oil has to be changed before it can be used
for anything. This happens in an oil refinery.
Crude oil doesn't always look the same – it depends
where it comes from. Sometimes it is almost
colorless, or it can be thick and black. But crude oil
usually looks like thin, brown treacle.
Crude oil is a naturally occurring liquid composed mostly of
hydrogen and carbon. It is usually found underground but
can also be found above ground in oil seeps or tar pits.
Crude oil is used to produce fuel for cars, trucks, airplanes,
boats and trains.
It is also used for a wide variety of other products including
asphalt for roads, lubricants for all kinds of machines,
plastics for toys, bottles, food wrap and computers.
Crude oil is believed to have been formed from very small
plants and animals that lived in ancient seas and oceans a
very long time ago.
As these plants and animals die, they sink to the bottom of
the sea where they mix with mud, sand, and clay.
Petroleum can be separated into different fractions by
fractional distillation.
Petroleum is heated to 360C in the absence of air in a
furnace to vaporize it before fractional distillation.
Crude oil is a naturally occurring liquid composed
mostly of hydrogen and carbon.
Crude oil is usually found underground.
The chemistry book