Name: Citric acid monohydrate Synonyms: Acido del Limon; Acidum Citricum Monohydricum; Citrico monohidrato, acido; Hydrous Citric Acid. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information Micromedix, Very soluble in water; Efflorescent, colourless martindale freely soluble in alcohol. crystals or granules, or a Soluble 1 in 0.5 of water, white crystalline powder. 1 in 2 of alcohol, and 1 in Store in airtight 30 of ether. containers. composition Citric acid is used in management of dry mouth, cough, GI disturbances, metabolic acidosis. Name: Glycerol Synonyms: E422; Glicerol; Glycerin; Glycerine; Glycerol; Glycerolum. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information Micromedix Miscible with water and Used as a demulcent in Martindale with alcohol; slightly cough preparations. soluble in acetone; Vehicle and solvent, practically insoluble in sweetening agent. fixed oils and in essential Lubricant and oils, insoluble in moisturising for topical chloroform, in ether. Its preparation, softening solutions are neutral to agent for ear drops. composition litmus. Name: Alum Synonyms: Alaun; Allume; Aluin; Alumbre; Alumen; Aluminium Kalium Sulfuricum; Aluminium Potassium Sulphate; Alun; E522; Potash Alum; Potassium Alum Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Potassium aluminium sulphate Freely soluble in water; A 10% solution in water Martindale dodecahydrate. very soluble in boiling has a pH of 3.0 to 3.5. AlK(SO(4))(2),12H(2)O= 474.4 water; practically Alum precipitates Colourless, transparent, crystalline insoluble in alcohol; proteins and is a powerful masses or a granular powder. soluble in glycerol. astringent. It is often included in preparations used as mouthwashes or gargles and in dermatological preparations. Name: Aluminium hydroxide gel Synonyms: Aluminium Oxidum Hydricum; Aluminum Hydroxide; Hidroxido de aluminio; Wasserhaltiges Aluminiumoxid. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A suspension of amorphous Dried Aluminum Aluminium hydroxide is Martindale aluminium hydroxide in which Hydroxide Gel: Insoluble used as an antacid. Binds there is a partial substitution of in water and in alcohol; phosphate in the GIT to carbonate for hydroxide. It is a soluble in dilute mineral form insoluble complexes white viscous suspension from acids and in solutions of and reduces phosphate which small amounts of clear fixed alkali hydroxides. absorption. liquid may separate on standing. It has a pH of between 5.5 and 8.0. Store in airtight containers. Avoid freezing. Name: Aminophylline Synonyms: Aminofilina; Aminofylliini; Aminofyllin; Aminophyllinum; Euphyllinum; Metaphyllin; Theophyllaminum; Theophylline and Ethylenediamine; Theophylline Ethylenediamine Compound; Theophyllinum et Ethylenediaminum. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A mixture of theophylline and Freely soluble in water Aminophylline has the Martindale ethylenediamine (2:1), (solution becomes cloudy actions and uses of (C(7)H(8)N(4)O(2))(2), through absorption of theophylline and is used C(2)H(4)(NH(2))(2) = 420.4 carbon dioxide); similarly as a It contains 84.0 to 87.4% of practically insoluble in bronchodilator in the anhydrous theophylline and 13.5 dehydrated alcohol. One management of asthma to 15.0% of anhydrous g dissolves in 25 mL of and COPD. ethylenediamine. A white or water to give a clear slightly yellowish powder, solution; 1 g dissolved in Store in airtight sometimes granular. 5 mL of water crystallises containers. Protect from upon standing, but light. redissolves when a small amount of ethylenediamine is added; insoluble in alcohol and in ether. Name: Arachis oil Synonyms: Arachidis Oleum Raffinatum; Cacahuete, aceite de; Earth-nut Oil; Erdnussol; Ground-nut Oil; Huile d'Arachide; Nut Oil; Ol. Arach.; Oleo de Amendoim; Oleum Arachis; Peanut Oil; Refined Arachis Oil. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex The refined fatty oil obtained from Practically insoluble in Emulsions containing Martindale the shelled seeds of Arachis water; very slightly arachis oil are used in hypogaea. A suitable antoxidant soluble in alcohol; freely nutrition. Arachis oil is may be added. It is a clear, soluble in given as an enema for yellowish viscous liquid consisting dichloromethane. softening impacted of glycerides, chiefly of oleic and Very slightly soluble in faeces. It is used in drops linoleic acids, with smaller alcohol; miscible with for softening ear wax and amounts of other acids. It solidifies petroleum spirit. Miscible in emollient creams. at about 2 degrees. with carbon disulfide, Store in well-filled chloroform, and with containers. Protect from ether. light. Relevant solubilities Other information Name: Aromatic ammonia solution Synonyms: Ammonia: Amoniaco, solucion diluida de. Source Structure, formula or chemical composition Micromedex Ammonia bicarbonate 25g, Dilute solutions of Martindale nutmeg oil 0.3ml, lemon oil 0.5ml, ammonia have been used BP 2005 alcohol (90%) 37.5ml, strong as reflex stimulants either ammonia solution 67.5ml, purified as smelling salts or water to 1000ml solutions for oral administration. Also used as rubefacients and counter-irritants and to neutralise insect stings. Name: Aromatic ammonia spirit Synonyms: Smelling salt Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Nutmeg oil 3 mL; lemon oil 5 mL; Store in airtight Martindale alcohol (90%) 750 mL; ammonium light-resistant containers. BP 2005 bicarbonate 25 g; strong ammonia The temperature should solution 67.5 mL; purified water to not exceed 30 degrees. 1000 mL. Used as a reflex stimulant given by inhalation, to revive an unconscious individual who has fainted; and an adjunctive in behaviour modification therapy. Name: Aromatic syrup Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition APF 20 Orange tincture 5ml, lemon spirit Store in airtight 0.5ml, syrup to 100ml containers Name: Ascorbic acid Synonyms: L-Ascorbic Acid; Acidum Ascorbicum; Cevitamic Acid; E300; Vitamin C Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information Freely soluble in water (1 A white or almost white in 3); soluble in alcohol (1 crystalline powder or in 40); insoluble in colourless crystals chloroform, in ether, and becoming discoloured on in benzene. exposure to light, air and composition Micromedex C6H8O6 = 176.1 Martindale moisture. A 5% solution in water has a pH of 2.1 to 2.6. Store in nonmetallic, airtight containers. Protect from light. Name: Aspirin Synonyms: Acetylsalicylic acid; 2-(acetyloxy)-Benzoic acid; Solpyron; Ecotrin; Colfarit; Asatylin; Acetophen; Salicylic Acid Acetate Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex CH3COOC6H4COOH = 180.16 Slightly soluble in water; Analgesic, Martindale C(9)H(8)O(4) 1g/100g water at 37’C; anti-inflammatory, freely soluble in ethanol antiplatelet, antipyretic. (80mg/ml), DMSO White/colourless, (41mg/ml), dimethyl crystalline powder, formamide (30mg/ml) weakly acidic substance. UPP29: Soluble 1 in 300 Stable in dry air of water, 1 in 5 of alcohol, (hydrolyses in moist air, 1 in 17 of chloroform, and decomposes in hot water) USP 29 1 in 10 to 15 of ether; sparingly soluble in absolute ether. Name: Belladonna dry extract Synonyms: Belladona; Belladone; Deadly Nightshade; Tollkirschen. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Martindale Each 100 g Belladonna extract Belladonna has the USP 29 contains not less than 1.15 g and actions of atropine EP not more than 1.35 g of the (antimuscarinic actions in alkaloids of belladonna leaf. a wide range of It may be in the form of a firm conditions, including the extract (Pilular Belladonna Extract) relief of GI and or a dry extract (Powdered urinary-tract disorders Belladonna Extract). associated with smooth muscle spasm). Belladonna leaf dry extract Atropine in belladonna contains not less than 0.95% and preparations unstable at not more than 1.05% of total alkaline pH and quickly alkaloids, calculated as degrades in mixtures with hyoscyamine (EP) a pH above 7. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light. Name: Belladonna tincture Synonyms: Belladonna leaf; Belladona; Belladone; Deadly Nightshade Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex It contains 0.027% to 0.033% of Atropine in belladonna Martindale total alkaloids calculated as preparations was USP 29 hyoscyamine. The alkaloids consist unstable at alkaline pH EP mainly of hyoscyamine together and would quickly be with small quantities of hyoscine. degraded in mixtures with It contains, in 100 mL, not less a pH above 7. Store in than 27 mg and not more than airtight containers. 33 mg of alkaloids of belladonna Protect from light. leaf Name: Bentonite Synonyms: Bentonit; Bentonita; Bentonitas; Bentonitum; E558; Mineral Soap; Soap Clay; Wilkinite Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A natural clay containing a high Practically insoluble in It is used as a suspending Martindale proportion of montmorillonite, a water and in aqueous and stabilising agent, native hydrated aluminium silicate solutions, but swells with adsorbent or clarifying in which some aluminium and a little water forming a agent, anticaking agent. silicon atoms may be replaced by malleable mass. Absorbs water readily to other atoms such as magnesium Insoluble in alcohol form sols or gels, and iron. depending on its A very fine, homogeneous, concentration. Store in greyish-white powder with a airtight containers. yellowish or pinkish tint. Name: Benzalkonium chloride solution Synonyms: Benzalkonium Chloratum Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A mixture of Very soluble in water and in A solution in water is Martindale alkylbenzyldimethylammonium alcohol; the anhydrous form is usually slightly alkaline chlorides, the alkyl groups having soluble 1 in 100 of ether and 1 in and foams strongly chain lengths of C8 to C18. It 6 of benzene. when shaken. A contains not less than 95% and quaternary ammonium not more than 104% of antiseptic/ disinfectant alkylbenzyldimethylammonium with actions and uses chlorides, calculated as C22H40ClN similar to cationic with reference to the anhydrous surfactants. Also a substance. preservative. Store in It contains not more than 15% of airtight containers. water. A white or yellowish-white, thick gel, or gelatinous pieces with a mild aromatic odour. Name: Calamine Synonyms: Calamina; Prepared Calamine. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex It is a basic zinc carbonate Practically insoluble in Calamine has mild Martindale coloured with ferric oxide. It is an water; it dissolves with astringent and antipruritic amorphous, impalpable, pink or effervescence in actions and is used as a reddish-brown powder, the colour hydrochloric acid. dusting powder, cream, depending on the variety and lotion, or ointment in a amount of ferric oxide present and variety of skin conditions the process used. Name: Castor oil Synonyms: Aceite de Ricino; Huile de Ricin; Ol. Ricin.; Oleum Ricini; Ricini Oleum Virginale; Ricino, aceite de; Rizinusol. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex The fixed oil obtained from the Practically insoluble in Store in airtight Martindale seed of Ricinus communis water; soluble in alcohol; containers at a USP 29 (Euphorbiaceae). It is a pale miscible with dehydrated temperature not > 40 yellowish or almost colourless, alcohol, with chloroform, degrees. Used externally transparent, viscid liquid. Has a with ether, and with for its emollient effect. faint, mild odour; is free from glacial acetic acid. Freely Used topically to allay foreign and rancid odour; and has soluble in irritation due to foreign a bland, characteristic taste. dichloromethane; slightly bodies in the eye. It may soluble in petroleum be used as the solvent in spirit some injections. Has been used as a laxative. Name: Cetomacrogol 1000 Synonyms: Cetomacrogol 1000; Cetomacrogolum 1000; Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Monocetyl Ether; Polyoxyethylene Glycol 1000 Monocetyl Ether. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Cetomacrogol 1000 is a macrogol ether Cetomacrogol Martindale containing 20 to 24 oxyethylene groups incompatible with in the polyoxyethylene chain. Has the phenols and reduces the formula antibacterial activity of CH(3).[CH(2)](m).[O.CH(2).CH(2)](n).OH, QACs. May separate where m = 15 or 17 and n = 20 to 24. from solutions in the presence of a high Macrogol cetostearyl ethers are used as concentration of surfactants and emulsifiers. electrolytes Name: Cetomacrogol emulsifying wax Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Cetostearyl alcohol 800 g; * Macrogol cetostearyl * Macrogol cetostearyl Martindale macrogol cetostearyl ether (22) ether with low numbers ether: White or Ph. Eur. 5.5 200 g (i.e. cetomacrogol 1000 20%, of ethylene oxide units yellowish-white waxy, BP 2005 cetostearyl alchohol 80%) per molecule is practically unctuous mass, pellets, * Macrogol cetostearyl ether: a insoluble in water; microbeads, or flakes. mixture of ethers of mixed soluble in alcohol and in Store in airtight macrogols with linear fatty dichloromethane. containers. alcohols, mainly cetostearyl Macrogol cetostearyl alcohol. It may contain some free ether with higher macrogols and it contains various numbers of ethylene amounts of free cetostearyl oxide units per molecule alcohol. The amount of ethylene is dispersible or soluble in oxide reacted with cetostearyl water; soluble in alcohol alcohol is from 2 to 33 units per and in dichloromethane. molecule (nominal value). Name: Cetostearyl alcohol Synonyms: Alcohol cetoestearilico; Alcohol Cetylicus et Stearylicus; Alcool Cetostearilico; Cetearyl Alcohol; Cetostearyl Alc.; Cetylstearylalkohol. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A mixture of solid aliphatic Practically insoluble in Used in creams, Martindale alcohols mainly stearyl alcohol and water; soluble in alcohol, ointments, and other Ph. Eur. 5.5 cetyl alcohol. It contains not < 90% in ether and in petroleum topical preparations as a BP 2005 of stearyl plus cetyl alcohols spirit. When melted, it is stiffening agent and (C(16)H(34)O = 242.4) and not less miscible with fatty oils, emulsion stabiliser. Used than 40% of stearyl alcohol with liquid paraffin, and with suitable hydrophilic (C(18)H(38)O = 270.5) . A white or with melted wool fat. substances, as in pale yellow wax-like mass, plates, Emulsifying Wax, it flakes, or granules. produces oil-in-water emulsions that are stable over a wide pH range. It is also used to improve the emollient properties of paraffin ointments Name: Cetrimide Synonyms: Cetrimida; Cetrimide; Cetrimidum. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex It consists of Freely soluble in water It has been used for Martindale trimethyltetradecylammonium and in alcohol. A 2.0% cleansing skin, wounds bromide and may contain smaller solution in water froths and burns. It has been amounts of copiously when shaken. used as a 0.1 to 1.0% dodecyltrimethylammonium aqueous solution, bromide and generally prepared by hexadecyltrimethylammonium dilution of a more bromide (= cetrimonium bromide). concentrated solution, or A white or almost white, as a cream containing voluminous, free-flowing powder. 0.5%. Also used as A quaternary ammonium preservatives including antiseptic with actions/uses of eye drops and in cationic surfactants. Has disinfecting solutions for emulsifying/detergent properties, hard contact lenses and bactericidal activity. Name: Chalk Synonyms: Prepared Chalk; Creta Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex CaCO3 = 100.1 Practically insoluble in A native form of calcium Martindale It contains not less than 97.0% and water; slightly soluble in carbonate freed from not more than 100.5% of CaCO3, water containing carbon most of its impurities by and calculated with reference to dioxide; it absorbs water elutriation and dried. the dried substance. White or readily. Used as an adsorbent greyish-white, odourless or almost antidiarrhoeal. Calcium odourless, amorphous, earthy, carbonate (precipitated small friable masses, usually chalk) used as an antacid, conical in form, or in powder. calcium supplement, phosphate binder Name: Chlorbutol Synonyms: Chlorobutanol; Acetone-Chloroforme; Alcohol Trichlorisobutylicus; Chlorbutanol; Chlorbutanolum; Chloretone; Chlorobutanolum; Clorobutanol; Trichlorbutanolum. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex 1,1,1-Trichloro-2-methylpropan-2-ol. Slightly soluble 1 in 125 of It has been used as a mild Martindale C(4)H(7)Cl(3)O = 177.5 water, 1 in 1 of alcohol, sedative and local It is anhydrous or contains not > and 1 in 10 of glycerol; analgesic. Also for one-half molecule of water of freely soluble in inflammatory and painful hydration. Colourless or white chloroform, in ether, and conditions of the ear and crystals with a characteristic, in volatile oils. oropharynx. Store in camphoraceous odour. Antibacterial airtight containers. and antifungal properties; preservative at 0.5% concentration. Name: Chlorhexidine gluconate solution Synonyms: Chlorhexidine Digluconate; Clorhexidina Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Martindale C22H30Cl2N10,2C6H12O7 = 897.77 Miscible with water, Antibacterial (gingivitis, Micromedex An aqueous solution which glacial acetic acid; peridontitis), antibacterial contains not less than 19% and not miscible with 5 times its cleansing agent (skin more than 21% of chlorhexidine volume of dehydrated disinfection, burns, hand gluconate. An almost colourless or alcohol and with 3 times scrub), dressing agent. pale yellow, clear liquid. A 5% v/v its volume of acetone; Store in airtight dilution in water has a pH of 5.5 to further addition of containers. Protect from 7.0. dehydrated alcohol or light. acetone gives turbidity. Name: Chlorocresol Synonyms: Chlorkresolum; Chlorocresol; Chlorocresolum; Clorocresol; Parachlorometacresol; PCMC. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex p-Chloro-m-cresol; Slightly soluble in water Potent chlorinated Martindale 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol. (1 in 260) more soluble in phenolic disinfectant and Ph. Eur. 5.5 C(7)H(7)ClO = 142.6 hot water; very soluble in antiseptic. Used for USNF 24 A white or almost white, alcohol (1 in 0.4); freely disinfection of the skin, crystalline powder or compacted soluble in fatty oils; wounds. Preservative in crystalline masses supplied as soluble in ether, in cosmetics, creams and pellets or colourless or white terpenes, in fixed oils, other preparations for crystals. and in solutions of alkali external use which hydroxides. contain water. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light. Name: Citric acid monohydrate Synonyms: Acido del Limon; Acidum Citricum Monohydricum; Citrico monohidrato, acido; Hydrous Citric Acid. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C(6)H(8)O(7),H(2)O = 210.1 Very soluble in water (1 in Used in effervescing Martindale Efflorescent, colourless crystals or 0.5); freely soluble in mixtures in the Ph. Eur. 5.5 granules, or a white crystalline alcohol (1 in 2) and 1 in preparation of USP 29 powder. Citric acid used in the 30 of ether. effervescent granules. management of dry mouth and to Enhances the dissolve renal calculi, alkalinise the effectiveness of urine, and prevent encrustation of antioxidants. urinary catheters. Also used for Store in airtight the treatment of coughs, GIT containers. disturbances, and metabolic acidosis. Name: Coal tar Synonyms: Alcatra~o Mineral; Alquitran de Hulla; Brea de hulla; Crude Coal Tar; Goudron de Houille; Oleum Lithanthracis; Pix Carbon.; Pix Carbonis; Pix Lithanthracis; Pix Mineralis; Pyroleum Lithanthracis; Steinkohlenteer. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Obtained by the destructive Slightly soluble in water Antiseborrheic and Martindale distillation of bituminous coal at to which it imparts an Keratolytic. Tars and tar BP 2005 1000 degrees. A nearly black, alkaline reaction; partly oils can reduce the viscous liquid with a strong soluble in absolute thickness of the characteristic penetrating odour. alcohol, in acetone, in epidermis. Antipruritic On exposure to air it gradually carbon disulfide, in and weakly antiseptic. becomes more viscous. It burns in chloroform, in ether, and Used topically in eczema, air with a luminous sooty flame. in volatile oils. More psoriasis, dandruff, soluble in benzene; seborrhoeic dermatitis almost completely soluble and other skin disorders. in nitrobenzene. Store in airtight containers. Name: Coal tar solution Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical composition Micromedex Coal tar 200 g; polysorbate 80 50 Martindale g; alcohol (96%) to 1000 mL. Relevant solubilities Other information Name: Codeine phosphate Synonyms: Codeina, fosfato de; Codeine Phosphate Hemihydrate; Codeini Phosphas; Codeini Phosphas Hemihydricus; Codeinii Phosphas; Methylmorphine Phosphate. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C(18)H(21)NO(3),H(3)PO(4),1/2H(2)O Freely soluble in water (1 Opioid analgesic. Much Martindale = 406.4 in 2.5), 1 in 0.5 of water less potent than USP 29 The hemihydrate occurs as fine, at 80 degrees; slightly morphine and has BP 2005 white, needle-shaped crystals or soluble or very slightly relatively mild sedative white crystalline powder; odourless. soluble in alcohol (1 in effects. For the relief of A 4% solution in water has a pH of 325) and 1 in 125 of cough, and mild to 4.0 to 5.0. Store in airtight boiling alcohol. moderate pain, often in containers at a temperature up to association with aspirin or 40 degrees as permitted by the paracetamol. Also given manufacturer. Protect from light. by im or sc injection for pain relief. Also for symptomatic relief of acute diarrhoea Name: Compound Camphor Spirit Synonyms: Camphor (2-Camphanone; D-Camphor (natural); Alcanfor; Cânfora; Camphora; Camphre Droit (natural); Camphre du Japon (natural); Kamfer; Kamferi) Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition APF 20 Camphor 0.3g, benzoic acid 0.5g, Camphor: Slightly soluble Camphor: Store at a Micromedex anise oil 0.3ml, ethanol (60%) to in water (1 in 800); very temperature not Martindale 100ml soluble in alcohol (1 in 1) exceeding 40 degrees in Camphor: C10H16O = 152.2 and in petroleum spirit; airtight containers. White crystalline powder or friable very slightly soluble in Applied externally, crystalline masses, highly volatile glycerol; freely soluble in camphor acts as a even at room temperature. fatty oils. 1 in 0.5 of rubefacient and mild A liquid or soft mass is formed chloroform, and 1 in 1 of analgesic and is used in when camphor is triturated with ether; freely soluble in liniments as a cloral hydrate, menthol, phenol, carbon disulfide and in counter-irritant. It is also and many other substances. fixed and volatile oils. an ingredient of many Camphor is readily powdered by inhaled nasal triturating with a few drops of decongestants. Taken alcohol, ether, or chloroform. internally camphor has irritant and carminative properties and has been used as a mild expectorant. Name: Compound Hydroxybenzoate Solution Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition APF 20 Methyl hydroxybenzoate 8g, MH: Very slightly soluble Preservative; antibacterial Micromedex propyl hydroxybenzoate 2g, in water (1 in 400), 1 in 50 and antifungal properties. Martindale propylene glycol to 100ml of water at 80 degrees; The hydroxybenzoate freely soluble in alcohol preservatives are widely MH: C(8)H(8)O(3) = 152.1 (1 in 3); 1 in 10 of ether; used in cosmetics and are Colourless crystals or a white and freely soluble in also used for food crystalline powder. methyl alcohol. preservation. Also used PH: Slightly soluble in for treating skin PH: C(10)H(12)O(3) = 180.2 water (1 in 2500); 1 in infections. A white crystalline powder. 400 of boiling water; freely soluble in alcohol (1 in 1.5) and in methyl alcohol, 1 in 3 of ether. Name: Compound tragacanth powder Synonyms: Tragacanth: E413; Goma Alcatira; Goma de tragacanto; Gomme Adragante; Gum Dragon; Gum Tragacanth; Trag.; Tragacantha; Tragacanto; Tragant. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition APF 20 Tragacanth (finely powdered) 15g, Tragacanth forms viscous Micromedex acacia (finely powdered) 20g, solutions or gels with Martindale starch (finely powdered) 20g, water, depending on the sucrose (finely powdered) 45g concentration. It is used Tragacanth: occurs as thin, as a suspending and flattened, ribbon-like, white or emulsifying agent pale yellow, translucent, horny Suspending agent for strips. When reduced to a powder internal use in it forms a mucilaginous gel with concentrations of 2-3%. In about ten times its weight of aqueous preparations, water. the powdered tragacanth is first dispersed in a wetting agent, such as alcohol, to prevent agglomeration on the addition of water. Protect from light. Name: Concentrated chloroform water Synonyms: Chloroform: Chloroformium Anesthesicum; Chloroformum; Chloroformum pro Narcosi; Cloroformo. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A colourless volatile liquid with a Slightly soluble in water; Chloroform: carminative, Martindale characteristic odour. Not more miscible with dehydrated flavouring and than 5.0% v/v distils below 60 alcohol, with ether, with preservative. degrees and the remainder distils fixed and volatile oils, and Externally, chloroform has at 60 degrees to 62 degrees. It with most other organic a rubefacient action. Also contains 1.0 to 2.0% v/v of ethyl solvents. a solvent. Store in alcohol; amylene 50 containers with glass micrograms/mL is permitted as an stoppers or other suitable alternative to ethyl alcohol. The closures. Protect from label states whether it contains light. ethyl alcohol or amylene. Name: Concentrated peppermint water Synonyms: Peppermint oil: Essence de Menthe Poivree; Essencia de Hortela~-Pimenta; Menta piperita, aceite esencial de; Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum; Ol. Menth. Pip.; Oleum Menthae Piperitae; Pfefferminzol. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Peppermint oil: It contains 30.0 to Miscible with alcohol and Peppermint oil is an Martindale 55.0% menthol, 14.0 to 32.0% with dichloromethane. aromatic carminative that menthone, and 2.8 to 10.0% Soluble 1 in 3 of alcohol relaxes GI smooth muscle menthyl acetate, 3.5 to 14.0% (70%) with not more than and relieves flatulence cineole, 1.5 to 10.0% slight opalescence. and colic. Used for the isomenthone, 1.0 to 9.0% relief of symptoms of IBS menthofuran, 1.0 to 5.0% or GI spasm secondary to limonene, not more than 4.0% other disorders. Also used pulegone, and not more than 1.0% as a flavour and with carvone; the ratio of eucalyptol other volatile agents in content to limonene content is preparations for greater than two. respiratory-tract It is a colourless, pale yellow, or disorders. Store in pale greenish-yellow liquid with a well-filled, airtight characteristic odour and taste containers. Protect from followed by a sensation of cold. light and heat. Name: Disodium edetate Synonyms: Dinatrii Edetas; Disodium Edathamil; Disodium EDTA; Disodium Tetracemate; Edetate Disodium; Edetato disodico; Natrii Edetas; Sodium Versenate. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C(10)H(14)N(2)Na(2)O(8),2H(2)O = Soluble in water; Sodium edetates are also Martindale 372.2. A white or almost white, practically insoluble in used in cleaners for crystalline powder. Sodium alcohol. contact lenses and as edetate is a chelator with a high antioxidant synergists. It affinity for calcium, with which it is also used topically to forms a stable, soluble complex treat calcium deposits in that is readily excreted by the the eye. kidneys. It has been given A 5% solution in water intravenously, as the disodium and has a pH of 4.0 to 5.5. trisodium salts, in the emergency Protect from light. treatment of hypercalcaemia. Name: Emulsifying Ointment Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Emulsifying wax 300 g (see below); * WSP: Practically Emulsifying ointment, Martindale white soft paraffin (White insoluble in water, in which contains Petroleum Jelly) 500 g; liquid alcohol, and in glycerol; emulsifying wax (see paraffin 200 g. soluble in below) with white soft dichloromethane; freely paraffin and liquid WSP: Purified and wholly or nearly soluble in chloroform, in paraffin, was found to decolorised mixture of semi-solid benzene, and in carbon have major sunscreen hydrocarbons, obtained from disulfide; soluble in ether, activity in clinically petroleum. It may contain a in petroleum spirit, and in normal skin. suitable antioxidant. It is not most fixed and volatile LP taken internally, it acts suitable for oral use. A white or oils. as a lubricant and, since it almost white, translucent, soft keeps the stools soft, it unctuous mass, slightly fluorescent * LP: Practically insoluble has been used in the in daylight when melted. Protect in water; slightly soluble symptomatic treatment from light. in alcohol; miscible with of constipation. hydrocarbons. Externally, it may be used LP: purified mixture of liquid as an ingredient of saturated hydrocarbons obtained ointment bases, as an from petroleum. It is a emollient and cleanser in transparent, colourless, oily liquid, certain skin conditions, free from fluorescence in daylight. and as an ophthalmic Protect from light. lubricant for dry eye Name: Emulsifying wax Synonyms: Anionic Emulsifying Wax; Cera Emulsificans; Cera emulsionante; Cetylanum; Emulsif. Wax. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex It is prepared from 9 parts of Practically insoluble in Emulsifying wax added to Martindale cetostearyl alcohol and 1 part of water, forming an fatty or paraffin bases BP 2005 sodium laurilsulfate or sodium emulsion; partly soluble facilitates the preparation salts of similar sulfated higher in alcohol; freely soluble of oil-in-water emulsions primary aliphatic alcohols. An in chloroform, in ether, in which are absorbed and almost white or pale yellow, waxy most hydrocarbon are nongreasy when solid or flakes, becoming plastic solvents, and in aerosol rubbed into the skin. It is when warmed, with a faint propellants. a constituent of many characteristic odour. hydrophilic ointment bases for so-called `washable' ointments. Name: Eucalyptus oil Synonyms: Esencia de Eucalipto; Essence d'Eucalyptus Rectifiee; Eucalipto, aceite esencial de; Eucalypti Aetheroleum; Oleum Eucalypti. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Colourless or pale yellow liquid Soluble 1 in 5 of alcohol Has been taken by mouth Martindale with a characteristic aromatic (70%). for catarrh and coughs. Ph. Eur. 5.5 camphoraceous odour and a Used as an inhalation pungent camphoraceous taste. It often in combination with contains not less than 70% w/w of other volatile substances. cineole. A rubefacient and also flavouring. Store in well-filled airtight containers at a temp not > 25 degrees. Protect from light. Name: Glycerol Synonyms: E422; Glicerol; Glycerin; Glycerine; Glycerol; Glycerolum. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A clear, colourless or almost Miscible with water and Used as a demulcent in Martindale colourless, very hygroscopic, with alcohol; slightly cough preparations. syrupy liquid, unctuous to the soluble in acetone; Vehicle and solvent, touch. Has not more than a slight practically insoluble in sweetening agent. characteristic odour, which is fixed oils and in essential Lubricant and neither harsh nor disagreeable. oils, insoluble in moisturising for topical Store in airtight containers. chloroform, in ether. Its preparation, softening solutions are neutral to agent for ear drops. litmus. Name: Hypromellose Synonyms: E464; Hipromelosa; Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose; Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; Hypromellosum; Methyl Hydroxypropyl Cellulose; Methylcellulose Propylene Glycol Ether; Methylhydroxypropylcellulose; Methylhydroxypropylcellulosum. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A propylene glycol ether of Practically insoluble in hot Similar properties to Martindale methylcellulose containing a water, in dehydrated methylcellulose. Used for variable proportion of methoxy alcohol, in acetone, in film-coating tablets, as a and 2-hydroxypropoxy groups. A chloroform, in ether, and tablet binder, as a white, yellowish-white, or in toluene. A 1% w/w modified-release matrix, greyish-white powder or granules. solution in water has a pH and as an emulsifier, Swells in water and produces a of 5.5 to 8.0. suspending agent, and clear to opalescent, viscous, stabiliser in topical gels colloidal mixture. and ointments. Name: Light kaolin Synonyms: Bolus Alba; Caolin; E559; Weisser Ton. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information A native hydrated aluminium Practically insoluble in Light Kaolin (Natural) is silicate, freed from most of its water and in mineral Light Kaolin which does impurities by elutriation, and acids. not contain a dispersing composition dried. It contains a suitable agent. They are dispersing agent. It is a light, absorbent antidiarrhoeal white, odourless or almost agents adjunct to odourless, unctuous powder free rehydration therapy. Light from gritty particles. kaolin externally as dusting powder. Heavy kaolin poultice reduces inflammation and pain. Name: Liquefied phenol Synonyms: Carbolic Acid; Fenol; Phenic Acid; Phenolum; Phenyl Hydrate; Phenylic Acid. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex An aqueous mixture containing Soluble in water; miscible It should be completely BP 2005 phenol 77.0 to 81.5% w/w in with alcohol, with ether, melted before use. An USP 29 purified water. A colourless to and with glycerol. antiseptic and faintly coloured, caustic liquid with disinfectant. Has been a characteristic and not tarry used for treatment of odour. ingrowing toenails. Name: Liquid Paraffin Synonyms: 905 (mineral hydrocarbons); Dickflussiges Paraffin; Heavy Liquid Petrolatum; Huile de Vaseline Epaisse; Liquid Petrolatum; Mineral Oil; Oleum Petrolei; Oleum Vaselini; Paraffinum Liquidum; Paraffinum Subliquidum; Parafina liquida; Vaselinol; Vaselinum Liquidum; White Mineral Oil. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information A purified mixture of liquid Practically insoluble in Taken internally acts as saturated hydrocarbons obtained water; slightly soluble in lubricant for constipation. from petroleum. It is a alcohol; miscible with Contain in laxative transparent, colourless, oily liquid, hydrocarbons. preparations. Externally composition Micromedex free from fluorescence in daylight. as ingredients of ointment bases, as an emollient and cleanser in certain skin conditions. Name: Liquorice liquid extract Synonyms: Alcacuz; Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Liquiritiae Radix; Liquorice Root; Orozuz; Raiz de Regaliz; Regaliz; Sussholzwurzel. Source Structure, formula or chemical composition Micromedex Relevant solubilities Other information Name: Magnesium trisilicate Synonyms: E553(a); Magnesii Trisilicas; Magnesio, trisilicato de. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A compound of magnesium oxide Practically insoluble in A fine, white, odourless, USP 29 and silicon dioxide with varying water and in alcohol. It is powder, free from proportions of water. It contains readily decomposed by grittiness. Antacid not less than 20% of magnesium mineral acids. properties. Given with oxide and not less than 45% of aluminium hydroxide silicon dioxide. A fine, white, which counteracts its odourless, powder, free from laxative effect. grittiness. Name: Massupol Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information Relevant solubilities Other information composition Name: Menthol Synonyms: Hexahydrothymol; Mentholum; Mentol. Source Structure, formula or chemical composition Micromedex It occurs as colourless, hexagonal Slightly soluble in water; Has a pleasant, USP 29 crystals, usually needle-like, or in very soluble in alcohol, in peppermint-like odour. fused masses, or crystalline chloroform, in ether, and Relieve symptoms of powder. in petroleum spirit; freely bronchitis, sinusitis, and soluble in glacial acetic similar conditions. Has acid, in fixed and volatile analgesic effect and oils, and in liquid paraffin. relieves itching in topical preparations. Name: Methylhydroxybenzoate solution Synonyms: E218; Metagin; Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate; Methylis Oxybenzoas; Methylis Parahydroxybenzoas; Methylis Paraoxibenzoas; Methylparaben (USAN); Metilparabeno. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information C8H8O3. Methyl Soluble 1 in 400 of water, Used as preservative with 4-hydroxybenzoate. Colourless 1 in 50 of water at 80 antibacterial and crystals or a white crystalline degrees, 1 in 3 of alcohol, antifungal properties. powder. M.p. 125 degrees to 128 and 1 in 10 of ether; degrees. freely soluble in methyl composition Micromedex alcohol. Name: Methyl salicylate Synonyms: Methyl Sal.; Methyli Salicylas; Methylis Salicylas; Metylsalicylat; Metyylisalisylaatti; Salicilato de metilo. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C8H8O3. Methyl Very slightly soluble in Salicylate acid derivative Ph. Eur. 5.5 2-hydroxybenzoate. A colourless, water; Soluble in alcohol, that is irritant to skin and yellowish, or reddish liquid having and in fatty and essential is used topically in the characteristic odour of oils. rubefacient preparations wintergreen. for the relief of pain in musculoskeletal, joint, and soft-tissue disorders. Name: Orange syrup Synonyms: Naranja. Sweet orange. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Sweet orange peel tincture 50 mL An ingredient of herbal USNF 24 anhydrous citric acid 5 g; talc 15 g; remedies used for sucrose 820 g; purified water to nervous and sleep 1000 mL. disorders. Name: Paracetamol Synonyms: Acetaminophen; N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol; Paracetamol; Paracetamolum; Parasetamoli Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C8H9NO2. A white odourless Soluble 1 in 20 of boiling Protect from light. Martindale crystalline powder. water, 1 in 10 of alcohol, Analgesic and antipyretic and 1 in 15 of 1N sodium properties. hydroxide. Name: Peppermint oil Synonyms: Essence de Menthe Poivree; Essencia de Hortela~-Pimenta; Menta piperita, aceite esencial de; Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum; Ol. Menth. Pip.; Oleum Menthae Piperitae; Pfefferminzol. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex contains 30.0 to 55.0% menthol, Miscible with alcohol Aromatic carminative that Martindale 14.0 to 32.0% menthone, and 2.8 (Soluble 1 in 3 of alcohol relaxes GI SM and to 10.0% menthyl acetate, 3.5 to (70%)) and with flatulence and colic. 14.0% cineole, 1.5 to 10.0% dichloromethane Enteric-coated capsules isomenthone, 1.0 to 9.0% relief symptoms of IBS 0.2 menthofuran, 1.0 to 5.0% mL po tds. Also used as limonene, not more than 4.0% flavour in preparations for pulegone, and not more than 1.0% respiratory tract carvone. It is a colourless, pale disorders. yellow, or pale greenish-yellow liquid with a characteristic odour and taste followed by a sensation of cold. Name: Phenoxyethanol Synonyms: Ethylene Glycol 2-Monophenyl Ether; Ethyleneglycol Monophenylether; Fenoxietanol; Phenoxyaethanol; Phenoxyethanolum; beta-Phenoxyethyl Alcohol; 2-Phenoxyethyl Alcohol. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C8H10O2. 2-Phenoxyethanol. A Slightly soluble in water, Preservative in cosmetic Martindale colourless slightly viscous liquid. in arachis oil and in olive and pharmaceuticals. oil; miscible with alcohol, Combine with with acetone, and with hydroxybenzoate to glycerol. achieve wider spectrum. Also as antiseptic. Name: Propylene glycol Synonyms: E1520; Glicol Propilenico; Propilenglicol; Propilenoglicol; Propylenglycolum. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C3H8O2. (+/-)-Propane-1,2-diol. A Miscible with water, with It absorbs moisture when Martindale clear, colourless, viscous, acetone, and with exposed to moist air. Used hygroscopic liquid. chloroform; soluble in as solvent and vehicle. ether; will dissolve in Has humectant properties many essential oils but is similar to glycerol in immiscible with fixed oils. topical moisturising preparations. Name: Red syrup Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Name: Salicylate acid Synonyms: Acido Ortoxibenzoico; Acidum Salicylicum; Salicilico, acido; Salisyylihappo; Salizylsaure. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex C7H6O3. 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid. Soluble 1 in 460 of water, Keratolytic properties for Martindale White or colourless acicular 1 in 15 of boiling water, 1 hyperkeratotic and scaling crystals or a white crystalline in 3 of alcohol, 1 in 45 of skin conditions such as powder. chloroform, 1 in 3 of dandruff, seborrhoeic ether, and 1 in 135 of dermatitis, itchyosis, benzene. psoriasis and acne. Also fungicidal properties. Name: Sodium citrate Synonyms: Citrato de sodio; E331; Natrii Citras; Trisodium Citrate. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex It is anhydrous or contains two The hydrous form is Has anti-clotting Martindale molecules of water of hydration. soluble 1 in 1.5 of water properties and is used in Colourless crystals, or a white and 1 in 0.6 of boiling solutions of crystalline powder. water; practically anticoagulation and insoluble in alcohol. preservation of blood for transfusion purposes. Also in cough mixtures. Name: Sodium lauryl sulphate Synonyms: Laurilsulfate de Sodium; Laurilsulfato de sodio; Natrii Laurilsulfas; Natrium Lauryl Sulphuricum; Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, Freely soluble 1 in 10 of Anionic emulsifying Martindale consisting mainly of sodium water giving an agent. Detergent and dodecyl sulfate. It contains not less opalescent solution; wetting agent. Medicated than 85% of sodium alkyl sulfates partly soluble in alcohol. shampoos and skin and not more than a total of 8% of cleanser. Surfactant sodium chloride and sodium properties. Combination sulfate. Small, white or light yellow preparations for crystals with a slight, characteristic constipation. odour. Name: Sodium metabisulphite Synonyms: Disodium Pyrosulphite; E223; Metabisulfito sodico; Natrii Disulfis; Natrii Metabisulfis; Sodium Disulphite; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Pyrosulphite. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Na2S2O5. White crystals or a Freely soluble in water Strong reducing agent as Martindale white to yellowish crystalline and in glycerol; slightly antioxidant. At higher powder with an odour of sulfur soluble in alcohol. conc and acid ph exhibits dioxide. Name: Spike lavender oil antimicrobial activity. Synonyms: Alhucema, aceite esencial de; Huile Essentielle d'Aspic; Ol. Lavand. Spic.; Oleum Lavandulae Spicatae; Spicae Actheroleum; Spike Oil. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Volatile oil from Lavandula mainly used in perfumery latifolia. It resembles lavender oil. Name: Starch Synonyms: Almidon; Amido; Amidon; Amilo; Amylum; Starke. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Consists of polysaccharide Practically insoluble in Absorbent and widely Martindale granules. Starch contains amylose cold water and in alcohol. used in dusting powder, and amylopectin, both either alone or mixed polysaccharides based on with zinc oxide. In tablets alpha-glucose. Irregular, angular, as binder, diluent, or white masses or fine powder. Is disintegrating agent. odourless and has a slight, characteristic taste. Name: Sulphur Synonyms: Azufre; Enxofre; Schwefel; Soufre; Sulfur. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information Practically insoluble in Keratolytic, mild water; very slightly antiseptic, mild soluble in alcohol; slowly antifungal, and and usually incompletely parasiticide. Widely used soluble 1 in 2 of carbon in lotions, creams, and disulfide; soluble 1 in 100 ointments for acne, of olive oil. dandruff, seborrhoeic composition Micromedex Martindale S. A yellow powder. conditions, scabies and superficial fungal infections. Name: Syrup Synonyms: Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Name: Theobroma oil Synonyms: Beurre de Cacao; Burro di Cacao; Butyrum Cacao; Cacao Butter; Cocoa Butter; Kakaobutter; Manteca de cacao; Manteiga de Cacau; Ol. Theobrom.; Oleum Cacao; Oleum Theobromatis. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex The solid fat obtained from the Slightly soluble in alcohol; Theobroma oil is used as Martindale roasted seeds of Theobroma soluble in boiling a basis for suppositories. cacao. A yellowish-white, dehydrated alcohol; freely somewhat brittle, solid fat, with a soluble in chloroform, in slight odour of cocoa. ether and in petroleum spirit. Name: White soft paraffin Synonyms: 905 (mineral hydrocarbons); Paraff. Moll. Alb.; Paraffinum Molle Album; Vaselina Branca; Vaselina filante; Vaseline Officinale; White Petrolatum; White Petroleum Jelly. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex Purified and wholly or nearly Insoluble in water; slightly Used as ointment basis Martindale decolorised mixture of semi-solid soluble in cold or hot and emollient in the USP 29 hydrocarbons, obtained from alcohol and in cold management of skin petroleum. It may contain a dehydrated alcohol; freely disorders. Not suitable for suitable antoxidant. A white or soluble in chloroform, in oral use. Not readily almost white, translucent, soft benzene, and in carbon absorbed by the skin. In unctuous mass, slightly fluorescent disulfide; soluble in ether, ointments for ophthalmic in daylight when melted. in petroleum spirit, and in lubricants in the most fixed and volatile management of dry eyes. oils. Name: Wool fat Synonyms: Adeps Lanae; Anhydrous Lanolin; Cera Lanae; Graisse de Suint Purifiee; Lanoleine; Lanolin; Lanolina; Lanolina anhidra; Purified Lanolin; Refined Wool Fat; Suarda; Wollfett; Wollwachs. Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex A purified, anhydrous, waxy Insoluble in water, but Used in the formulations Martindale material obtained from the wool mixes without separation of water-in-oil creams of the sheep (Ovis aries). It with about twice its and ointments. Mixed contains not more than 0.25% of weight of water; sparingly with a suitable vegetable water. A yellow, unctuous soluble in cold alcohol; oil or soft paraffin gives substance. When melted, it is a more soluble in hot emollient creams that clear or almost clear, yellow liquid. alcohol; freely soluble in penetrate the skin. chloroform and in ether. Name: Zinc oxide Synonyms: Blanc de Zinc; Flores de Zinc; Zinc, oxido de; Zinci Oxidum; Zinci Oxydum; Zincum Oxydatum Source Structure, formula or chemical Relevant solubilities Other information composition Micromedex ZnO. A white or yellowish-white, Practically insoluble in Mild astringent also used Martindale odourless, amorphous, very fine water and in alcohol; it topically as soothing powder, free from grittiness. dissolves in dilute mineral protective applications acids. for eczema, slight excoriation, in wound and haemorrhoids. Reflects UV used in sunscreen.