Exam Review – Monera, Viruses and Protists
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List 6 general things bacteria do (from your notes).
List 5 characteristics of prokaryotes
What are the differences between archaebacteria and eubacteria.
Archaebacteria: List properties of Methanogens, Thermoacidophiles, Halophiles. What are these and where are they found?
Eubacteria: What are the characteristics of gram positive and gram negative bacteria?
Fill in the chart below.
Ways that bacteria are helpful
Ways that bacteria are harmful
1)
2)
3)
Draw the 3 shapes of bacteria (Cocci, Bacilli, Spirilla)
Where and under what conditions do bacteria thrive?
Compare and contrast the terms: clean, sanitized, and sterile.
Define disease, pathology and pathogen.
List the 6 types of diseases. (ways in which you might get a disease)
What is meant by host to host transmission? Provide an example.
What is meant by third party transmission? Provide an example.
Define virulence and resistance.
Compare and contrast an antibody and an antibiotic.
Why do we say that your immune system has a “memory”?
Explain how a vaccine works.
How can a person suffer from a cold numerous times in one year?
List 5 ways pathogens can be spread.
List 6 ways to prevent bacterial growth on food.
Compare and contrast an antiseptic with a disinfectant.
Sketch a bacterial plate for an antibiotic that was fairly effective. Discuss the size of the zone of inhibition.
Sketch a bacterial plate for an antibiotic if the bacteria growing was resistant. Discuss the size of the zone of inhibition.
How do bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics?
Describe three ways that people are contributing to the rise of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
According to the article, “Disease in the World Today”,
a. Why do ‘bugs’ have an advantage over humans?
b. Why is smallpox considered such a terrorist threat?
c. What clues should we look for if disease has hit an area?
d. How has technology found a way to prevent outbreaks of influenza?
Do you think researchers should store deadly, but contained, viruses such as smallpox or the 1918 flu?
What are the three components of virions?
Viruses
a. Why are some considered living or not living?
b. Draw the stages of Lytic cycle and understand what is happening at each stage
c. Draw the Lysogenic cycle and understand what is happening at each stage
d. Name some diseases caused by viruses.
How does HIV progress to AIDS?
How does HIV enter the body?
Aside from the chronic diseases that they cause, what other illness are HPV, HCV and HPV linked to?
How do viruses indirectly contribute to cancer development?
How do viruses directly contribute to cancer development?
Discuss the pros and cons of taking Tylenol when you have flu-like symptoms (ie. Muscle soreness, headache, fever, etc)
Why are protists grouped together in a Kingdom?
What is classification of protists based on?
What are animal-like protists called?
Within the animal-like protists, there are four main groups that are classified according to how they ______________. List the
four groups and describe each.
What are plant-like protists called?
How are plant-like protists similar to plants (hint: what they perform, contain and produce)?
Why are plant-like protists not considered true plants?
Within the plant-like protists, there are two main groups that are classified according to their ______________. List the two
groups and describe each.
The characteristic that makes a true fungus similar to fungus-like protists is that they are both ______________________.
List the three types of fungus-like protists and describe each.
The exam will contain multiple choice and short answer questions.
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Exam Review – Monera, Viruses and Protists
KEY
1. List 6 general things bacteria do. (in your notes)
i. Decompose plants and the bodies of animals
ii. Increase oxygen supply on Earth
iii. Help digest food
iv. Provide vitamins
v. Used in the manufacture of some foods
vi. Can cause some human diseases
2. List 5 characteristics of prokaryotes
Do NOT have a nucleus
No membrane-bound organelles
Have different ribosomes than eukaryotes
Smaller than eukaryotes
Single-celled organisms
3. What are the differences between archaebacteria and eubacteria.
Archae = ancient
Were around in ancient times when the First forms of life when Earth was inhabitable.
Live in harsh environments
Eu = true
Therefore, true bacteria (traditional bacteria)
4. Archaebacteria: List properties of Methanogens, Thermoacidophiles, Halophiles. What are these and
where are they found?
Methanogens – produce methane gas, swamp gas, found in digestive tract
Thermoacidophiles – live in hot acid water, hot springs
Halophiles – live in extremely salty conditions (10x sea water)
5. Eubacteria: What are the characteristics of gram positive and gram negative bacteria?
Gram positive – thick cell walls, purple violet stain sticks turning them purple/black
Gram negative – thin cell walls, purple violet stain does not stick turning them pink
6. Fill in the chart below.
Ways that bacteria are helpful
Ways that bacteria are harmful
1) food production (cheese, yogurt, vinegar,
1) cause food to spoil
sauerkraut)
2) digestive tract
2) disease in plants
3) recycling (decomposers)
3) disease in humans
4) nitrogen fixation
7. Draw the 3 shapes of bacteria (Cocci, Bacilli, Spirilla)
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8. Where and under what conditions do bacteria thrive?
Everywhere there is food, water and warmth.
9. Compare and contrast the terms: clean, sanitized, and sterile.
Clean = not dirty, no visible residue but possibility of microbes present in large numbers.
Sanitized = cleaned with disinfectant such as Lysol, alcohol or bleach, possibility of microbes present in
very low numbers.
Sterile = items sterilized in an autoclave or by heating over flame. Free from living microorganisms
(sterile surgical instruments).
10. Define disease, pathology and pathogen.
Disease: Any condition that interferes with the ability of an organism to function
Pathology: Study of disease
Pathogen: A disease-causing agent (organism or material)
11. List the 6 types of diseases. (ways in which you might get a disease)
Infections, deficiencies (scurvy), environment (pollution), heredity (cancer), degenerative (arthritis), cancer
(could be viral, heredity, environmental or combo)
12. What is meant by host to host transmission? Provide an example.
pathogen passed directly from 1 organism to another. (flu virus)
13. What is meant by third party transmission? Provide an example.
another organism carries the pathogen (malaria)
14. Define virulence and resistance.
Virulence: the ability of a pathogen to cause disease (ie. how “strong” the pathogen is)
Resistance: the ability of the host to cope with a pathogen (ie. how “strong” you are at defending yourself)
15. Compare and contrast an antibody and an antibiotic.
Antibody: Protein, build by your own immune system, which destroys pathogens
Antibiotic: A chemical prescribed by a physician, to kill a pathogen
16. Why do we say that your immune system has a “memory”?
The immune system has a memory. If you survive an infection, the body can quickly produce antibodies
for that pathogen
17. Explain how a vaccine works.
When we are being immunized, weakened pathogens or antibodies to them are injected into the body. The
host is then immune to the pathogen for a period of time
18. How can a person suffer from a cold numerous times in one year?
virus mutates
19. List 5 ways pathogens can be spread.
Air, water, food, hypodermic needles, sneezes
20. List 6 ways to prevent bacterial growth on food.
drying, salt, preservatives, pasteurization, freezing/refrigeration, heating/cooking
21. Compare and contrast an antiseptic with a disinfectant.
Antiseptics – chemical agents applied to tissue to prevent infection by killing or inhibiting bacteria. (ie.
mouthwash, toothpaste, hand sanitizer, soap, throat lozenges etc.)
Disinfectants - chemical agents applied to inanimate (non living) objects to killing/remove bacteria. (ie.
pine sol, lysol, bleach, ammonia, febreze etc.)
22. Sketch a bacterial plate for an antibiotic that was fairly effective. Discuss the size of the zone of inhibition.
23. Sketch a bacterial plate for an antibiotic if the bacteria growing was resistant. Discuss the size of the zone
of inhibition.
24. How do bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics?
mutations, conjugation when humans use antibiotics (including antibacterial agents) or don’t complete their
prescriptions we are selecting for antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria.
25. Describe three ways that people are contributing to the rise of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
when humans use antibiotics or antibacterial agents or don’t complete their prescriptions we are selecting
for antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria
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26. According to the article, “Disease in the World Today”,
a. Why do ‘bugs’ have an advantage over humans?
more of them than us
generation time is in minutes vs. years
evolve (mutate rapidly)
b. Why is smallpox considered such a terrorist threat?
billions of infectious particles can be stored in a small vial that could be easily smuggled
c. What clues should we look for if disease has hit an area?
increase in over the counter antidiarrheal medicines
monitoring emergency room stats
# of people calling in sick at work and for school
d. How has technology found a way to prevent outbreaks of influenza?
collecting global influenza virus samples and conducting genetic tests to predict dominant strains to
mass produce vaccines
27. Do you think researchers should store deadly, but contained, viruses such as smallpox or the 1918 flu?
28. What are the three components of virions?
nucleic acid, protein coat, lipid membrane
29. Viruses
a. Why are some considered living or not living?
viruses do not contain the chemical machinery enzymes needed to carry out the chemical reactions
for life
b. Draw the stages of Lytic cycle and understand what is happening at each stage
c. Draw the Lysogenic cycle and understand what is happening at each stage
d. Name some diseases caused by viruses.
colds, influenza, aids, ebola, hepatitis, herpes, warts
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30. How does HIV progress to AIDS?
the number of T4 cells drops so low the immune system is weak
31. How does HIV enter the body?
sexual contact, sharing needles, breastfeeding, mom to fetus during pregnancy, blood transfusion
32. Aside from the chronic diseases that they cause, what other illness are HPV, HCV and HPV linked to?
cancer
33. How do viruses indirectly contribute to cancer development?
cancer cells are not removed or tissue damage that leads to large scale cell regeneration which increases
chances of mutations in growth promoting or suppressing genes.
34. How do viruses directly contribute to cancer development?
by integrating into the host cells DNA and altering the growth promoting or suppressing genes
35. Discuss the pros and cons of taking Tylenol when you have flu-like symptoms (ie. Muscle soreness,
headache, fever, etc)
Pros – comfort, prolonged fever over 41 C is dangerous
Cons – lowering the fever gves the virus a second chance to reproduce at optimal temp.
36. Why are protists grouped together in a Kingdom?
they are eukaryotes that do not fit into other 3 kingdoms
37. What is classification of protists based on?
how they obtain food
38. What are animal-like protists called?
protozoans
39. Within the animal-like protists, there are four main groups that are classified according to how they move .
List the four groups and describe each.
Sarcodinians-organisms that move by extending lobes of cytoplasm. Ex) radiolarians, foraminiferans,
ameba
Zooflagellates-use flagella (whiplike structures that aid in movement). Ex) Trichonympha (lives in the gut
of a termite)
Ciliophorans or ciliates-use cilia (short, hairlike projections used for movement) and live mostly in fresh
water. Ex) Paramecium
Sporozoans-cannot move themselves. Ex) Plasmodium
40. What are plant-like protists called?
algae
41. How are plant-like protists similar to plants (hint: what they perform, contain and produce)?
contain chlorophyll and produce sugar (photosynthesis)
42. Why are plant-like protists not considered true plants?
no true roots, stems, leaves
43. Within the plant-like protists, there are two main groups that are classified according to their structure
(single vs multicelled). List the two groups and describe each.
Unicellular-include dinoflagellates, diatoms, and euglenoids and some green algae.
Multicellular-include green algae, red algae, and brown algae. These algae have specialized structures that
resemble the parts of plants
44. The characteristic that makes a true fungus similar to fungus-like protists is that they are both
decomposers.
45. List the three types of fungus-like protists and describe each.
Plasmodial slime molds-have single cells with multiple nuclei that can form spore-producing fruiting
bodies.
Cellular slime molds-have single ameboid cells that can come together to form fruiting bodies and
produce spores
Water molds-include different freshwater and land protists that act as decomposers and sometimes as
parasites
The exam will contain multiple choice and short answer questions.
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Bacteria Virus Protist Review