AUICK First 2006 Workshop
City Report of Olongapo
Marivic Jadulco Nierras
Planning Officer III, Technical Section, City Planning and Development Office, Olongapo
City, The Philippines
1. Brief History
Olongapo started as a fishing village of the adjacent municipality of Subic. It was once
the site of the biggest U.S. naval base (Subic Naval Base) in Asia for over three quarters of a
century. It grew into a municipality and later on a city. On June 1, 1966, it became a chartered
city and in 1984 it was categorized as a highly urbanized city. The city was devastated during
the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. This was exacerbated by the removal of the U.S.
bases in 1992 with all businesses and livelihood activities practically affected. The people of
Olongapo with the local leadership lobbied for the creation of Subic Bay Metropolitan
Authority which directed the industrial transformation of the former naval base. Today the
former U.S. Naval Base has been converted into a Freeport and special economic zone under
the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA) which is providing major employment and
business opportunities to the residents and migrants.
Location and Topography
The city is geographically located at 14°15" latitude and 120°17" longitude and lies
127 kilometers Northwest of Manila. It is a three-hour drive on the average, along the North
Expressway and the Olongapo–Gapan Road. It is located at the southernmost portion of
Zambales Province, on the western coast of Central Luzon. It is bounded on the northeast by
the municipality of Subic, Zambales, on the north and northwest of Dinalupihan, Bataan, on
the southeast by Morong, Bataan and Subic Bay on the southwest. The city’s total land area of
185 square kilometers is distributed among its seventeen (17) barangays or villages. Other
than the city proper, which is located on a 6.48 sq.km tidal flatland, Olongapo City is
characterized by rugged and mountainous terrain. About 80% of the city’s land areas are
either rolling to steep or have slopes of 18% and higher thus limiting land suitable for urban
development. And the rest are mainly flat areas which are usually found along the coast of
Subic Bay.
Land Use
The present urban land use is typical where the majority of the commercial and
institutional establishments are lined up along the major thoroughfares of the city. The inner
blocks nearest the main streets basically have a mixed land use, which is either commercial or
residential. The interior sections are primarily areas of residential apartments and houses.
BUILT UP/DEVELOPED AREAS
AS OF DECEMBER 2005
LAND USE
AREA
CLASSIFICATION
( in hectare )
Urban Area
2,508.79
Freeport
965.7
Forest /watershed
6,521.25
Disputed Area
6,850.75
Open Grassland
1,653.51
TOTAL
18,500.00
PERCENTAGE
(in %)
13.56
5.22
35.25
37.03
8.94
100
Classification
Residential
Commercial
Special
Others
Industrial
Total
Percentage
96.99
2.27
0.73
0.09
0.01
100
Area(has)
2,433.25
57
18.31
1.52
0.23
2,508.79
It will be noted from the table above that built-up area accounts only for 13.56% while
35.25% is forest area or watershed and there is a significant amount of 37.03% of land area
falling under disputed area. Boundary disputes with the neighboring municipalities resulted
from the creation of the City in 1959 which expanded the town of Olongapo from Subic town,
until it shared common borders with the Provinces of Bataan, Zambales and Pampanga.
Boundary disputes create economic losses since the taxes and revenues due to Olongapo City
are given to the neighboring towns instead.
Population
Based on the 2000 Census of Population conducted by the National Statistics Office
(NSO), Olongapo has a total population of 194,260 excluding transients. At the national level,
the city shared 0.25% to the Philippine population of 76.5 million as recorded in the 2000
Census. The city has an annual growth rate of 1.68% and with 43,107 number of households.
For the year 2005, the city’s projected population is 211,135 with gross density of 11.41
persons per hectare (assuming equal distribution and the total land area of 18,500 hectares).
Considering the built up area of 2,379.01 hectares, population density is 88.75 persons per
hectare. Per NSO 2000 Census, female comprises 50.82% of total population while males
constitute 49.18%. Of the city’s population 35.0% are 15 years and below, 62.3% are 15 to
64 years old and 7.2% are 65 years old and above. The city does not yet experience any
problem on aging society.
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Economy
Olongapo is a service-based economy with almost 50% of its income sources derived
from employment primarily in the wholesale/retailing business and services. The city is
essentially a consumers community with the basic food requirements coming from nearby
towns and provinces. Unfortunately, the city’s lack of natural resources limits the type of
economic activity it can promote and the type of industry that can be developed in the city.
The city has unknown expectable mineral resources base is its people. Record shows that the
service sector has been its main engine. The city depends largely on the industries of Subic
Bay Freeport (SBF) but for political reasons, SBF is pursuing a development course that is
independent of Olongapo City. But still due to the employment generated by the Subic Bay
Freeport there is a multiplier effect to the other sectors in retail and transportation.
One of the main contributors to the city’s economic growth is its tourism industry. The
City is a destination in its own right mainly showcasing its civic programs like the color
coded system, volunteerism, and market administration. Olongapo City is also host to some of
the best beach resorts in the country that can cater to both local and foreign visitors. Aside
from beaches, the other major attraction in Olongapo City is the present Subic Bay Freeport
and Special Economic Zone. This once heavily guarded American facility offers prospective
visitors of the city with world-class amenities such as golf course, hotels and resorts and
nature-related recreational activities such as forest treks and horse back riding.
Health
Strategies towards achieving substantial accomplishments in health programs area
carried out by the City Health Office, the city owned James L. Gordon Memorial Hospital, the
Barangay Health Workers and other health personnel. It has an Urban Basic Services
Programme which provides technical assistance, training, seminars, medicine and vitamins to
the disadvantaged communities of the City. There are eight (8) private hospitals and one (1)
government hospital, as well as 18 Health Centers and one health station in the City serving
the needs of city residents, and those of the neighboring towns and the Freeport.
For 2005, a crude birth rate of 24.11 per 1,000 population has been recorded compared
to previous year’s 22.87. In contrast to crude death rate of 4.58 per 1,000 population was
recorded which is higher than previous year’s record of 4.29. Infant mortality rate went up at
9.01 per 1,000 live births from 2004’s record of 7.64. The three leading causes of morbidity
are respiratory infections, hypertensions and malaria while causes of mortality are
hypertension, heart diseases and malignant neoplasm.
Infrastructure and Utilities
Drainage and Sewerage System
The city’s drainage system consists of roadside ditches and open canals draining into
natural channels and rivers. The river beds are heavily silted due to sand deposits in the
mountain slopes attributable to Mount Pinatubo’s eruption in 1991. This causes flooding.
There is no sewerage system in the city although 98.13% of the total households have sanitary
toilets.
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Water Supply
The water supply system of the city and that of Subic Bay Freeport are under the
management of the private company - Subicwater and Sewerage Company, Inc. The
increasing demand in the supply of water calls for improving the water treatment facilities. It
remains to be top priority in improving the service operations.
At present, there are a total of 25,082 connections in the city with 1,771
commercial/institutional and 23,311 residentials. The average daily demand of Olongapo City
is 22,740 cubic meters while production is 35,888 cubic meters with a small excess of 13,148
cu.m. The present water sources include dam and well in Barangay Sta. Rita, Mabayuan Dam
in Gordon Heights, San Isidro Well in Barretto, Balite Spring in New Cabalan and the source
from Subic Bay Freeport Zone.
Solid Waste Management
The city also operates the Environmental Sanitation and Management Office, on a
commercial basis. The City has pioneered and institutionalized a system whereby consumers
are required to enclose their wastes or use readily available plastic bags that must be taken out
at designated days and at a given time for collection. Garbage fees are incorporated into
power bills to ensure collection. The method is so effective and popular, it won the Galing
Pook Award in 1994 and is commonly featured to visiting Local Government Units (LGUs)
seeking to share the experience.
Transportation
The City has also pioneered the color-coding and identification system for public
transportation to rationalize the transport system. All the major routes have designated colors
with body numbers prominently painted on the mini-buses, jeeps or tricycles. Each number
has a corresponding entry in a Directory showing the driver’s picture, name and address, the
owner and other details. Violations and complaints are then easily resolved under this system
and illegal or “colorum” vehicles are easily detected. Planning, inspection and licensing are
also made easier.
At present, there are 170 buses, 216 mini-buses, 1,380 public utility jeepneys and
2,010 public utility tricycles authorized to ply their respective routes.
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2. Urban Development
2.1 Change in Area and Population
Area
(km²)
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2004
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
Total
107,785
145,109
156,430
Data not available
193,327
179,754
194,260
207,647
211,135
229,477
249,412
271,078
294,627
Births
Population
Deaths
Data not available
Data not available
Inmigration
Outmigration
TFR
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available
4,701
5,140
5,732
5,002
4,814
4,841
5,215
824
1,198
998
901
897
908
991
TFR : Total Fertility Rate
(Source: National Statistics Office; City Health Office; City Civil Registrar’s Office)
2.2
Change in Surface Geometry
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OF OLONGAPO CITY IN 1998
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3. Government Structure
3.1 Relationship with the central government and the other government organs
As one of the local government units (LGUs) and as a highly urbanized city, the City
Government of Olongapo is directly supervise by the President of the Republic of the
Philppines with the primary assistance of the Department of the Interior and Local
Government (DILG). The local chief executives may call upon any national official or
employee stationed in or assigned to an LGU to advise and regularly report to him on matters
affecting LGUs and make recommendations thereon; or to coordinate in the formulation and
implementation of all plans, programs, and projects.
Olongapo City’s relationship with the national government is well established and
support from National Government Agencies (NGA’s) is expected to continue in the next
decades. The City was included in the various development plans from the national to the
regional, sub-regional levels and provincial levels.
3.2 City Government System
Olongapo City is governed by a City Mayor designated as its Local Chief Executive
and by a City Council as its Legislative body in accordance with the Local Government Code.
Both the Mayor and the ten (10) City Councilors are elected directly by the people through an
election which is being held every three (3) years. The Vice Mayor who is elected together
with the Mayor and the Sangguniang Panlungsod acts as the presiding officer of the City
Council.
Political and socio-economic strength of the city are drawn from the 17 “barangays”
(villages) which comprise the city’s basic local government units governed by a Barangay
Chairman and a Barangay Council. These various barangays are located mainly on the
urbanized portions of the City.
Olongapo City was created by virtue of Republic Act No. 4645 known as the City
Charter of Olongapo dated June 01, 1966. It was classified as a Highly Urbanized City in
1983. For a city to be in this category, it should have a minimum population of 200,000
inhabitants as certified by the National Statistics Office and with the latest annual income of
at lease Php50 Million based on 1991 constant prices, as certified by the City Treasurer. The
city’s charter was later modified with the enactment of the Local Government Code.
In order to facilitate government operations, Olongapo has established 20
Departments/Offices to plan, execute and monitor plans and projects by the city including
maintenance of peace and order. At present, there are 1,731 at City Hall working in these 20
Department/Offices.
3.2.1 Role of Mayor (elected) and Administrator/Commissioner (Bureaucracy)
The City Mayor is elected to serve three (3) years and can run for re-election for
another two (2) terms. As the chief executive of the city government, he shall exercise
such powers and perform such duties and functions as provided by the Local
Government Code and other laws. He exercises general supervision and control overall programs, projects, services and activities of the city government for efficient,
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effective and economical governance the purpose of which is the general welfare of
the city and the people. He enforces all laws and ordinances relative to the governance
of the city and in the exercise of the appropriate corporate powers, implement all
approved policies, programs, projects, services and activities of the city. Important
powers include the power to appoint officials and employees whose salaries and
wages are wholly or mainly paid out of city funds. He has the power to initiate and
propose legislative measures to the city council and present the program of
government and propose policies and projects for the consideration of the city council.
The City Administrator’s assist in the coordination of the work of all the officials
of the local government unit under the supervision, direction and control of the City
Mayor and for the purpose of, the City Administrator may convene the chiefs of
offices and other officials of the local government.
3.2.1 Role of the City Assembly and Executive Office
The Sangguniang Panlungsod acts as the legislative body of the city. Its role is to
enact ordinances, approve resolutions and appropriate funds for the general welfare of
the city and its inhabitants and makes regulations protection the public from
conflagration. While the Office of the Executive enforces and gives the necessary
order for the faithful enforcement and execution of the provisions of the City Charter
and other laws and ordinances within the jurisdiction of the City.
3.2.3 Administrative Organizational Chart
CITY MAYOR
CITY
ADMINISTRATOR’S
OFFICE
CITY COURT
PERSONAL STAFF
BUSINESS PERMIT
SPORTS & YOUTH DEV’T
ONE STOP BUS. CENTER
PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICE
POPCOM
KHG RESCUE TEAM
PHILHEALTH
SRT
LABOR CENTER
TRAFFIC MGMT. BOARD
LIBRARY
MIS
MUSEUM
PLEB
CITY MALL
REACH-UP
TOURISM
CITY PLANNING &
DEVELOPMENT
OFFICE
CITY
PROSECUTOR’S
OFFICE
Sangguniang Panlungsod
PUBLIC
ATTORNEY’S
OFFICE
JAMES L. GORDON ENVIRONMENTAL
MARKET &
MEMORIAL
SANITATION &
SLAUGHTERHOUSE
HOSPITAL
MGMT. OFFICE
CITY
TREASURER’S
OFFICE
CITY LEGAL
OFFICE
CITY BUDGET
OFFICE
CITY SOCIAL
CITY ENGINEER’S
WELFARE & DEV’T.
OFFICE
OFFICE
CITY HEALTH
DEPARTMENT
GORDON
COLLEGE
CITY CIVIL
REGISTRY
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CITY
VETERINARIAN
CITY
ACCOUNTANT’S
OFFICE
GENERAL
SERVICES
OFFICE
CITY
ASSESOR’S
OFFICE
OLONGAPO CITY
CONVENTION
CENTER
PUBLIC
UTILITIES
DEPARTMENT
3.3 Financial Resources and Allocation to different sectors in 2006
FINANCIAL RESOURCES
Olongapo City’s revenues are derived from two sources, local and external. Local
revenues such as local property taxes, business taxes, other taxes as well as fees and
receipts are derived from the operations of the city and other public enterprises.
External sources of income includes the internal revenue allotment (IRA) being
transferred by the national government to the local government units (LGUs) in the
Philippines
Total available revenues for 2006 amounted to Php1.448Billion, which is 5.385%
higher than the 2005 figure of Php1.374Billion. The increase can be generally attributed
to the general increase gained in resources of the revenue from taxation, the non-tax
revenues and aids and allotments, except for the revenue from taxation.
The Operating and Miscellaneous Revenues continues to have the lion’s share of
total revenues of Php1.052Billion. Tax revenue posted an amount of
Php352.652Million and account for 24.37% of the City’s total income. Other sources of
the 2006 available revenues came from the gain on sale of disposed assets, grants,
extraordinary income and inter-fund transfer/reversion.
ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES FOR 2006
The City’s total appropriation for the year 2006 amounted to Php1.447Billion which
were used to fund various administrative requirements, public welfare and internal
safety, economic ventures and public utilities.
On sectoral appropriation, funding for General Services amounted to
Php272.385Million or 18.82% of the total appropriation; Social Services posted at
Php54.353Million or 3.76% of the total appropriation and Economic Services posted at
Php1.12Billion or 77.42% of the total appropriation.
The allocation for economic services continue to post a highest allocation of
77.42% of the total 2006 budget. This was due to the continuing support provided by
the city to its economic enterprises like the Convention Center, Gordon College,
Olongapo City Public Market, James L. Gordon Avenue Market and Mall,
Slaughterhouse, ESMO, James L. Gordon Memorial Hospital, Olongapo City Mall and
the Public Utilities Department.
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4. Urban Planning and Environmental Protection
4.1 Administrative Organizations and Duties for Urban Planning and Environmental
Protection
Environmental Bureau/Office of Olongapo City Government
Environmental Sanitation 1. Act as advisor body to the City Mayor on matters
and Management Office
pertaining to ecological balance.
2. Establish, formulate and issue policies and guidelines
in connection with the environmental quality standards
and impact assessment.
3. Undertake programs, projects and other activities
relative to environmental protection, sanitation and
development of parks and plazas.
4. Monitor government and private development
projects and see to it that they are in line with the
environmental priorities of the city.
5. Improve and maintain an effective solid waste
management system and day to day function of garbage
collection and disposal.
Urban Planning Office of Olongapo City Government
City
Planning
and 1. Formulate integrated economic, social physical and
Development Office
other development plans and policies for consideration
of the local government development council.
2. Conduct continuing studies, researches and training
programs necessary to evolve plans and programs for
implementation.
3. Integrate and coordinate all sectoral plans and studies
undertaken by the different functions, groups or
agencies.
4. Analyze the income and expenditure patterns,
formulate and recommend fiscal plans and policies for
consideration.
5. Issues Zoning certificate and locational clearances.
6. Provides information/reference materials to
researchers, investors, visitors and others as well as
access to exhibits showing of Olongapo’s past and
present scenarios like Socio-Economic Profile,
Development Plans, Zoning Ordinances and
Comprehensive Land Use Plan
4.2 Environment in Urban Policy Making
Policies in the form of ordinances and executive orders were adopted in the
city’s solid waste management program. Said policies conformed to present needs and
adjusted to such exigencies as inflation, fuel price increases, base withdrawal, Mt.
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Pinatubo eruption, etc. Fees and rates were adjusted when the earnings in the initial
years put the program in a deficit. Between 1989 and 1990, the City Council enacted
eight (8) ordinances or measures dealing with the utilization of the landfill area, the
rates of solid waste collection fees, the schedules and mechanics of collection, etc.
4.3 Current Status and Challenges of Environmental Administration
The primary agency responsible for the environment in the city is the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) through its Community
Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) which is under the national
government. Because of the growing population of the city, the watershed areas and
waters are increasingly pressured. Lack of support from the national government limits
the programs that are undertaken by the DENR in the area. However, Olongapo City’s
work coordination with DENR is doing quite well but needs further refinement in terms
of issuing clearance property to land ownership and titling to ensure that this will not
run in conflict with the approved zoning ordinance of the city.
While the city’s Environmental Sanitation and Management Office (ESMO) is
the one responsible to manage the solid waste management program of the city. By the
structure, the Local Chief Executive has direct control and supervision over the ESMO
in the implementation of the system. While the City Health Office complemented the
work through their Sanitary Inspectors who issued citation tickets to violators of City
Ordinances and Sanitation Laws.
With the city government still handling the waste management system, it will be
in full control. Expenditures, use of equipment and disposal methods will be better
monitored. Government revenues are assured, but only if garbage fees are collected and
properly managed. Vehicles and other equipment remain with the government, and may
be used for other purposes during emergencies.
4.4 Priority Issue and Measures
PRIORITY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
The rapid economic development and urbanization experienced by the City of
Olongapo in the past decades has also resulted a decline in the quality of its
environment. Hereunder are the most serious environmental problems that the city is
facing now a days :
a. Most of the river systems in the city are in various states of degradation, which have
resulted from the indiscriminate dumping of waste by riverside residents and the
heavy siltation of the natural channels. The absence of sewerage system in the city
also contributed to the water pollution of the rivers. This has a major impact on the
coastal marine waters, as these are the ultimate receiving bodies of water for the
waste and pollution that are dumped in the river systems.
b. Proliferation of squatters along forest areas, drainage channels and mountain areas
where they can easily occupy/squat. The increasing population growth due to
accelerated development is putting pressure in the upland areas of the city where the
watershed areas are located.
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c. The declining air and noise quality in the city is another most serious environmental
problem that need to be given attention by the city. The increase in mobile sources
(motor vehicles) of air pollutants has further aggravated the situation. The adverse
impact of the decline in the air and noise pollution of the city is an increase in the
occurrence of upper respiratory diseases. The sectors highly susceptible to this are
the children and the elderly. It is of primary importance that this problem on the
environment be addressed and its adverse impacts be minimized, if not totally
eliminated.
MEASURES
a. The Environmental Sanitation and Management Office (ESMO) of the city is
working on possible solutions to eliminate the riverside dumping of solid waste and
other waste materials which is one of the causes of the river pollution which are
cited hereunder :
• Regular collection of garbage is being done. But since access to
individual houses is a problem, with the use of bancas, identified pick-up
points in the riverside has been designated where garbage can be
deposited prior to collection by the collectors.
• Desilting/ dredging of heavily silted waterways is also being done but
due to fund constraint not all areas can be covered. But the city
government is outsourcing funds to implement the said desilting projects
to enhance flow of the river systems.
• An intensive information and education campaign is being done to raise
awareness on the health implications of water pollution.
• Continued coordination of the City Government with the private water
company, Subicwater and Sewerage Company, Inc., to generally protect
Olongapo Bay through an effective sewerage system. Since August 2004,
said company have already initiated their Sewerage Masterplan 2020
project covering Subic Bay Freeport Zone which will extend to the city
in the near future.
b. To make available land for development particularly for housing and resettlement
areas, the city is pursuing its coordination with DENR to amend land classification
and perfect the city’s claim over public lands. Sourcing out funds for low cost
housing through public and private borrowings is also being done for the housing
program of the city.
c. To minimize the problem on air and noise pollution in Olongapo City, priorities
were given particularly on the following :
•
•
•
•
•
planting of trees along its major roads as well as in the mountainous areas;
rationalization of the traffic management system to minimize air pollution
and noise levels;
establishment of greenbelts/tree parks and buffer zone establishment project
Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among citizens and transport
operators
The City Council passed an ordinance requiring owners and drivers of
public utility vehicles to present ten (10) seedlings of fruit trees upon
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•
•
renewal of their city’s annual vehicle inspection and permit. This is to
promote good source of natural oxygen which are depleted due to vehicle
emissions.
Regular monitoring of air quality parameters in the city
Strict enforcement of ordinances concerning traffic and transport
management
5. Environment Indicators
5.1 Land Use
a. Total Surface area as of December 2004
b. Forest area
Forest Area in 1990
Forest Area in 2004
% change since 1990
% of land area covered by forest in 1990
% of land covered by forest in 2004
c. Agricultural land
Agricultural area in 1990
Agricultural area in 2004
% change since 1990
Agricultural area as a % of total land area in 2004
Arable land in 2004
Land under permanent crops in 2004
Land under permanent pastures in 2004
c
65.21 km²
65.21 km²
%
49.68%
49.68%
8.35km²
8.35km²
%
4.51%
km²
km²
km²
(Source: Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Community Environment and Natural Resources Office )
5.2 Waste
a. Municipal waste collection
Latest year available
Municipal waste collected
Population served by municipal waste collection
Municipal waste collected per capita served
b. Municipal waste treatment
Latest year available
Municipal waste collected
Municipal waste landfilled
Municipal waste incinerated
Municipal waste recycled/composted
c. Hazardous waste generation
1990
1995
2000
2004
2005
(Source : Environmental Sanitation and Management Office)
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2004
26.842 (1000 tones)
85%
0.35kg
2004
(26.842)1000 tones
80.56%
%
19.44%
1000 tones
1000 tones
1000 tones
1000 tones
1000 tones
PHOTOS OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE CITY
Collection of garbage in residential areas
Some of the residents devise a hanger
where they can place their plastics of
garbage
River clean-up being maintained by ESMO staff
Some household sell the recyclable
materials to the junk boys
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Citation ticket is being issued to the
violator of the city’s sanitation ordinance
Monitoring staff
One of four newly purchased used
garbage collecting vehicles
Remaining functional compactor truck of
the city which is donated by JICA
Four newly purchased used garbage
collecting vehicles of the city to improve
the collection efficiency
Garbage collectors/sanitary technicians of
the city with their new uniforms
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Aerial View of the Landfill/Waste Disposal Site
MRF Building at Waste Disposal Site
Scavenging at Waste Disposal Site
Existing bulldozer at the Landfill Site
Existing compactor truck purchased in 2004 to
increase the lifespan of the Controlled Dumpsite
Existing cyclone wire fence/barrier at the
Waste Disposal Site
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PHOTOS OF ENVIRONMENT DETERIORATED BY ILLEGAL WASTE DISPOSAL
Clogged creek at in-between lots
Polluted water at Kalaklan River
Drainage Channel in-between Olongapo
City and Subic Bay Freeport Zone
Kalaklan Riverside
Clogged drainage
Illegal dumping of garbage at the River
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PHOTOS OF BEAUTIFICATION ACTIVITIES BY LOCAL PEOPLE
Beautification of main thoroughfare
River clean-up activity of the youth
organizations of the city
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PHOTOS OF ENVIRONMENT DETERIORATED BY TREE TRIMMING OR
HAPHAZARD DEVELOPMENT
Illegal cutting of trees
Denuded mountain
Mountainside that is already prone to
erosion
Burning of waste or “kaingin” at the
mountain
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PHOTOS OF GREENING ACTIVITIES
Tree planting activity by NGO’s in
one of the denuded forests
Tree planting along the city’s main
thoroughfare
Tree planting activity of the City
Government Employees in the watershed
area
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