Geologic Studies Key Terms: It Rocks!
- Rocks are constantly Changing, this process is called
the “Rock Cycle”.
- The study of rocks is called geology.
- 1. Sedimentary Rocks: a type of rock which is formed
when sediments are left in a lake or sea. Sediments are
small pieces of mud or sand which are left in water.
When put under great pressure these sediments stick
together to form sedimentary rock.
- Igneous Rock: a type of hard rock which comes out of
the ground as a liquid called magma. (When magma
reaches the earth’s surface it is called lava). As it
spreads out, it cools and becomes solid igneous rock.
- Metamorphic Rock: rock which has been changed in
some way usually by being heated or put under
pressure. Limestone can be turned into marble by heat
and pressure.
Other Important Terms
Lava: Molten rock that reaches the earth’s surface.
Fault: A crack in the earth’s crust. The rocks on either side
of this crack move upwards or downwards.
Folding: A process in which layers of the earth’s surface are
deformed into “folds”. Folding occurs with sideways
movement.

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