2012 Sustainability Institute for Educators Course(s) US Government Sustainability is incorporated as a concept in is the introductory unit on types of government, our founding documents, and federalism. Number of Sustainability concepts incorporated into Class Period (minutes) 52 days to larger unit (approximately 6 days) complete Sustainability as a concept involves the interactions between the environment, society, and the economy. None of these functions independently of the other two, all affect one another. If we want to have an environment, economy, and society that is sustainable and successful for future generations, we need to understand the impact each has on one another. We as citizens need to understand these interactions so that we can implore our elected officials to make decisions in a sustainable fashion. In my government classroom I seek to educate my students on the importance of citizen participation in their democracy. When incorporating sustainability into the social studies curriculum it is important to take a holistic approach; weaving the concept of Purpose Statement & sustainability into the curriculum from day one. Leaving sustainability as a separate rationale stand-alone unit in a social studies curriculum would detract from the importance of citizens demanding their government enact policies and practices that promote sustainability in our economy, society and environment. Students need to understand the impact they can have on the environment, society and the economy with their actions as active citizens who not only vote but participate in their democracy in various ways. Some examples would be attending meetings of local governance, or organizations which promote sustainability in the community, running for political office or assisting in a campaign, or donating time to a local charity. Topic • Students/citizens need to know and understand our form of government, and the historical foundations of that government. • Students need know and be able to understand and how sustainable ideas are and can be promoted through citizen awareness and participation. Sustainability • Students need to understand where we came from and why a democracy is the Concepts & Themes optimal form of government for maintaining Sustainability; while also understanding the challenges faced by our and other governments around the world. Being able to compare and contrast our form of government with others around the world students will gain a greater understanding of how citizen participation has an impact on sustainability. Learning outcomes or Learning indicators. 2011 Model Curriculum Topic- Basic Principles of the U.S. Constitution Ohio Standard Principles related to representative democracy are reflected in the articles and Addressed amendments of the U.S. Constitution and provide structure for the government of the United States. Content Statement- 5. As the supreme law of the land, the U.S. Constitution incorporates basic principles that help define the government of the United States as a federal republic including its structure, powers and relationship with the governed 6. The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers framed the national debate over the basic principles of government encompassed by the Constitution of the United States. Topic - Structure and Functions of the Federal Government Three branches compose the basic structure of the federal government. Public policy is created through the making of laws, the execution of the laws and the adjudication of disputes under the laws. Content Statement- 14. Law and public policy are created and implemented by three branches of government; each functions with its own set of powers and responsibilities. Topic- Role of the People The government of the United States protects the freedoms of its people and provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process. Content Statement- 16. In the United States, people have rights that protect them from undue governmental interference. Rights carry responsibilities that help define how people use their rights and that require respect for the rights of others. National Standards Addressed Formative None assessments Materials needed: 1. Textbook 2. Copies of “Government Simulations and Debates” Activity 1B p.4 3. Smart board slides 4. Guided Reading 1-3 p.3 Objectives: Daily unit Day 1 outline/schedule 1. TSW (The Students Will) determine the similarities and differences between the different forms of government that were introduced yesterday – Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy. 2. TSW identify the general purposes of government. 3. TSW compare the advantages and disadvantages of different types of government 4. TSW understand that we are members of ecological and social communities where decisions made by society for economic and political reasons impact the greater environment. Also, the abundance, availability and condition of natural resources affect economic and political decisions. Activities: 1. Give student groups Activity Sheet 1B “Government Simulations and Debates” p. 4 to complete. Groups will be discussing their ideas on the purpose of government with examples (step 2) and they will try to come up with 3 distinct types of governments with a short description of each. Students will use information from other student groups and prior knowledge to fill in step 3. Students should come up with responses that approximate oligarchy, autocracy and democracy. 2. Using smart notes, introduce the concept of sustainability using the Venn and circle diagrams. Give students definition of sustainability 3. Distribute “Guided Reading” 1-3 p. 3 for home work. This activity is an advanced organizer that allows students to explore the attributes of the three types of government- oligarchy, autocracy, and democracy. Assessments: 1. Group discussion 2. Homework GR 1-3 3. Activity 1 B Materials needed: 1. Bell work 2. Textbook 3. GR 1-3 4. Smart board slides Objectives: Day 2 1. TSW determine the similarities and differences between the different forms of government that were introduced yesterday – Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy. 2. TSW compare and contrast the governmental powers in the American form of Representative Democracy with the governmental powers in of an autocracy and an oligarchy. 3. TSW understand that we are members of ecological and social communities where decisions made by society for economic and political reasons impact the greater environment. 4. TSW develop oral communication skills. Activities: 1. Create a bell work assignment that asks students to reflect on the concept of sustainability. 2. Continue discussion of Sustainability by presenting information with smart board slides on how the plastics industry has impacted our society economically, socially (politically & culturally), and environmentally. 3. Go over yesterday’s homework “Guided Reading Activity 1-3” which highlights the differences between the three types of government. Smart board slides review this information. 4. Have students discuss the benefits and draw backs of each type of government. 5. Homework -- Students will be asked to predict the impact the rule of law under each type government will have on maintaining a Sustainable society for current and future generations in essay format. Students will also be asked to justify how they came to those conclusions using their understanding of the different types of government and the idea of sustainability. Assessments: 1. Group discussion 2. Homework GR 1-3 3. Essay on sustainability and different forms of government. Materials needed: 1. Bell work 2. Textbook 3. Worksheet “Characteristics and Soil of a Democracy” Objectives: Day 3 1. TSW compare and contrast the powers included in the American form of Representative Democracy in relation to powers included in the other forms of government. 2. TSW examine the difference between a Democracy and a Republic. 3. TSW determine which form of government, a Democracy or a Republic would be best suited to maintain a sustainable society. 4. TSW analyze the “soils and characteristics of democracy” and relate them to today’s lifestyle and be able to recognize sustainable concepts throughout. 5. TSW develop team building skills. 6. TSW develop oral communication skills. Activities: 1. Bell work – Have students write the pledge of allegiance 2. Quickly discuss the difference between a Republic and a Democracy, and how the definition of a Democracy has evolved over the past 200 years. Emphasize the wording in the “Pledge of Allegiance” and relate the definitions of each to today’s Republican and Democratic parties. 3. Ask students which a republic or a democracy is best suited to a sustainable society and why. 4. Pose question to students – In a Representative Democracy (republic) what is the most important factor (piece of the puzzle) given the challenges of maintaining a sustainable society? 5. To introduce the concept of the soil and characteristics of a Democracy the teacher can begin by talking about the “characteristics” of a mother, father, teacher etc. and with the “soil” of democracy the teacher can discuss what a plant needs to grow. After emphasize that democracy can be like both of these things it has many characteristics and needs a certain “environment” to succeed or grow. 6. Put students into groups and have them match up the definitions for the soil and characteristics with the terms. Students will also be determining if it is a characteristic or a soil of democracy. 7. Once all groups think they have the right order pass out a completed guide on the characteristics and soil of democracy. 8. After matching up the correct terms and definitions lead students in a discussion on which characteristics and soil best promote a sustainable society. This should be a confirmation of #4. Assessments: 1. Completed analysis worksheet by each group Materials needed: 1. Packet “Deciphering the Declaration of Independence” 2. Directions for Dear George letter 3. Sample letter projected on Smart board or overhead Day 4 & 5 Objectives: 1. TSW analyze the Declaration of Independence explain what it means in modern English. 2. TSW determine the purpose of the Declaration of Independence. 3. TSW recognize sustainable concepts within the goals and ideals embodied in the DOI 4. TSW develop oral communication skills. 5. TSW develop written communication skills. Activities: 1. Begin class by quickly finishing any groups from yesterday 2. Ask students to recognize sustainable concepts and ideas present throughout the Declaration. What are they and how do they promote sustainable societies? As student may have trouble finding sustainable ideas, ask them to predict why this is so, what could be the cause. 3. Introduce Dear George letter to students. Students will work on converting the DOI into a break up letter to a boyfriend or girlfriend named George or Britain. (If another name is suitable that’s okay) This assignment will demonstrate student’s higher order thinking skills through synthesizing the information. 4. Go over directions. Be sure to emphasize the three parts of the letter, 1. Introduction, 2. Complaints, 3. Conclusion 5. Show student a sample of what a letter might look like. DO NOT give them a copy. 6. Have students work on letters in class, checking their progress. 7. Tell student’s letters will be worked on Monday in class and rough drafts will be checked by teacher. Due Wednesday. Encourage students to be creative and type letters to earn bonus at teachers’ discretion. 8. Day 5 – work on letter. Teachers check rough drafts. Assessments: 1. Class discussion on sustainable ideas within the DOI 2. Completed letter Materials needed: 1. Venn diagram hand out Objectives: Day 6 1. TSW discover the concept of federalism as used in the United Sates Constitution. 2. TSW define, compare, and contrast delegated, concurrent, and reserved powers. 3. TSW predict and explain the effect federalism has on maintaining a sustainable society. Activities: 1. Bell work: Thomas Jefferson quote on Federalism. “The true theory of our constitution is surely the wisest & best, that the states are independent as to everything within themselves, & 2. 3. 4. 5. united as to everything respecting foreign nations. Let the general government be reduced to foreign concerns only, and let our affairs be disentangled from those of all other nations, except as to commerce, which the merchants will manage the better, the more they are left free to manage themselves, and our general government may be reduced to a very simple organization, & a very inexpensive one; a few plain duties to be performed by a few servants.” Thomas Jefferson --- August 13, 1800 Pass out Venn diagram on Federalism and have students fill in definitions and examples of each type of powers together as teacher fills in diagram on an overhead. Emphasize how the Constitution uses Federalism, where the idea came from, and why it has worked so well for over 200 years. Begin discussion with students about the effects Federalism may have on maintaining and promoting a sustainable society. Homework-- Students will be asked to consider how federalism can promote a sustainable society and predict how federalism may inhibit a sustainable society. This discussion will continue tomorrow and students will be informed this question will appear on the test. Assessments: 1. Completed Venn diagram 2. Discussion on Federalism and sustainability 3. Homework Summative Essay test covering historical documents, federalism, and sustainability. assessments No. of Pages including worksheets, quizzes, etc. 14 Klumer, L. & McClean C. (2012). Introduction to Sustainability. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://dropbox.com Remy, R. C. (2006). United States Government Democracy in Action. Columbus, OH: References McGraw Hill Glencoe. Remy, R. C. (2006). Guided Reading Notes. United States Government Democracy in Action. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill Glencoe. Supported by: Homework Day 2 Predict the impact the rule of law under each type of government (Dictatorships, and Democracy) will have on maintaining a Sustainable society for current and future generations. Justify how you came to those conclusions using your understanding of the different types of government and the idea of sustainability. /10 Total points Impact /5 points Very Good Good Average Poor Students accurately and convincingly predict the impact the rule of law under each type of government (Dictatorships, and Democracy) will have on maintaining a Sustainable society for current and future generations. Student accurately predicts the impact the rule of law under each type of government (Dictatorships, and Democracy) will have on maintaining a Sustainable society for current and future generations. Student predicts the impact the rule of law under each type of government (Dictatorships, and Democracy) will have on maintaining a Sustainable society for current and future generations. Student could have been more detailed in their prediction of what the future would look like. Student thoroughly and justifies how they came to their conclusions. Student uses their understanding of the different types of government and the idea of sustainability in answering the question. Student justifies how they came to their conclusions. Student could have better used their understanding of the different types of government and the idea of sustainability in answering the question. Student prediction does not include the impact the rule of law under each type of government (Dictatorships, and Democracy) will have on maintaining a Sustainable society for current and future generations. Student could have been more detailed in their prediction of what the future would look like. Student did not justify how they came to their conclusions. Student understanding of the different types of government and the idea of sustainability was completely unclear. Student thoroughly and convincingly justifies how they came to their Justification conclusions. Student accurately uses their understanding of the /5 points different types of government and the idea of sustainability in answering the question. Day 4 activity sheets Four Characteristics of a Democracy Individual Liberty Definition- people are as free as possible to develop their own capacities. Government works to equal opportunity for all. Examples- people are free to pursue the educational/career field of their choice. Majority Rule with Minority Rights Definition- decisions are made by a majority of voters in free elections. It is accepted that laws made by elected legislatures represent the will of the majority. The constitution protects the rights of the minority. Examples- Presidential elections are representative of majority rule. The Supreme Court upheld the right of Mitsuye Endo, a U.S. citizen, not to be sent to a relocation camp in during WWII. However many non-citizen were sent and this is seen as an example of the tyranny of the majority. Free Elections Definition- the authority to create and run the government rests with the consent of the governed. Free elections ensure that public officials pay attention to the wished of the people. Every persons vote carries the same weight. Examples- In the U.S. there are very limited restrictions on voting. (age, citizenship, and residence). Competing Political Parties Definition- People with broad common interests working together to win elective office, determine public policy, and make those in power accountable for their actions. Examples- The Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. are an example of this. There are also many third party organizations with similar goals. (Green, Libertarian, Constitution) The Soil of Democracy Active Citizen Participation Definition- citizens who are willing to participate in civic life. Examples- informing oneself about issues, voting, serving on juries, working for candidates, running for government office, donating time to charitable organizations, writing letter to editor expressing your views… Favorable Economy Definition- Democracy survives best in a country that does not have extremes of wealth and poverty and that have a large middle class. You can control your economic decisions; therefore, you can make political decisions. Examples- United States of America, France, Canada… Wide Spread Education Definition- Democracy is more likely to succeed where there is an educated public. Examples- U.S., Japan, Great Britain Quote by Thaddeus Stevens Strong Civil Society Definition- Complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations, and groups that exist independent of the government. Give people a way to make their views known to government and public, a way to protect their rights, and a way to participate in your democracy. Examples- Red Cross, Humane Society, NRA, Sierra Club, labor unions, news papers Social Consensus Definition- There is a general agreement among the people about the purpose and limits of government and liberty and equality for all. Examples- colonists Day 6 What is Federalism?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Reserved Delegated Concurrent What are expressed powers?__________________________________________________________________________________________________ What are implied powers? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Powers Denied Delegated Reserved Assessment Historical Documents, Federalism and Sustainability Test Part 1-- Directions: Answer questions 1 & 2 (5 pts. each) 1. What is the purpose of Government? Is it important to create a strong Government? Why/why not? 2. Describe the concept of a Sustainable Society and explain why it is important? Part 2 – Directions: Answer 2 of the three questions below. Be sure to answer questions in essay format using complete sentences. Make sure you have addressed all parts of the question and you are detailed in your answers drawing from information covered in class and in your notes. (10 points each) 3. Two theories for government came to bear in the new constitution, the idea of a 3 branch government and the idea of Federalism. In what specific ways did these two ideas help ensure we would not have a government similar to the one we had fought so hard against in the revolutionary war? 4. Highlight the main points of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan and describe how the Connecticut Compromise worked to address the weaknesses in each plan. 5. Using the 4 of the weakness of the Articles of Confederation describe specifically how the US Constitution improved upon those weaknesses. Part 3 – Directions: Answer the following question in essay format using complete sentences. This is a THREE PART question, make sure you have answered all three parts of the question and are detailed in your answer drawing from information covered in class and in your notes. See the rubric on back for my expectations. (30 points) 6. The concept of maintaining a Sustainable society was discussed throughout this unit. Using the concept of Sustainability (1) describe which form of government (oligarchy, autocracy, and democracy) would be best suited to a sustainable society and explain why. (2) Explain how a Sustainable society can be maintained as a result of our government being a Representative Democracy using the characteristics and soil of democracy. (Minimum 3) (3) Explain the potential challenges and advantages of a Federalism framework in achieving Sustainability. Assessment /30 total Which form of government is best suited to a sustainable and why? /10 points Explain how a Sustainable society can be maintained as a result of our government being a Representative Democracy using the characteristics and soil of democracy. Very Good 10 pts. Good 9-8 pts. Essay accurately and convincingly describes why chosen form of government is best suited to maintaining and promoting a sustainable society. Essay accurately describes why chosen form of government is best suited to maintaining and promoting a sustainable society. Essay accurately and convincingly describes how it is that us being a Representative Democracy makes our society sustainable using the characteristics and soil of democracy. Used more than three in answer. Essay accurately describes how it is that us being a Representative Democracy makes our society sustainable using the characteristics and soil of democracy. Used 3 in answer. Essay accurately and convincingly explains the challenges and advantages unique to a Federalism framework as it relates to maintaining a Sustainable society. Essay accurately explains the challenges and advantages unique to a Federalism framework as it relates to maintaining a Sustainable society. Average 7 pts. Poor 6 pts. Essay does not Essay describes describe why why chosen form of chosen form of government is best government is best suited to maintain a suited to sustainable society. maintaining a Could have given sustainable society. clearer more Needed to give convincing clearer more descriptions of why convincing chosen form of descriptions of why government chosen form of promotes a government sustainable society promotes a sustainable society Essay describes Essay does not how it is that us describes how it is being a that us being a Representative Representative Democracy makes Democracy makes our society our society sustainable using sustainable using the characteristics the characteristics and soil of and soil of democracy. Needed democracy. Did not better use of the use of the characteristics and characteristics and soil of democracy soil of democracy in explanation. Did in explanation. not use 3. /10 points Explain the potential challenges and advantages of a Federalism framework in achieving Sustainability. /10 points Essay explains the challenges and advantages to a Federalism framework as it relates to maintaining a Sustainable society. More detail was needed in description of challenges and advantages unique to Federalism. Essay does not fully explain the challenges and/or advantages to a Federalism framework as it relates to maintaining a Sustainable society. Essay is lacking substantial detail in description of challenges and advantages unique to Federalism.