Supplemental Methods Methods S1 TRV-mediated VIGS in N. benthamiana. Fragments of 5’ NbSACPD-A/B, 5’ NbSACPD-C, and the conserved region of NbSACPD-A/B and NbSACPD-C cDNAs were amplified by PCR using gene-specific primers (Table S2). These fragments were then cloned into pTVR2 (Liu et al., 2002) via EcoR I and Xho I sites to construct pTRV2-AB, pTRV2-C, and pTRV2-ABC, respectively. 4-week-old N. benthamiana plants were infiltrated with Agrobacteria cultures carrying different combinations of plasmids by using syringes as described previously (Liu et al., 2002). Agrobacterium cultures were grown at 28°C in medium with kanamycin (50 mg l-1), 10 mM MES (morpholine ethanesulfonic acid, pH 5.9), and 50 μM acetosynringone. These were subcultured once and harvested when the OD600 reached 0.8-1.0. Agrobacterium cultures were brought to OD600 = 1.0 in the infiltration solution (10 mM MgCl2, 10 mM MES, pH 5.9, and 150 μM acetosynringone) and incubated at room temperature for at least 3 hours. The cultures containing pTRV1 were mixed with cultures containing pTRV2-GFP, pTRV2-AB, -B or -ABC in a 1:1 ratio (Liu et al., 2002). Plants co-infiltrated with pTRV1 and pTRV2-GFP were used as controls. Reference: Liu, Y., Schiff, M., Marathe, R. and Dinesh Kumar, S.P. (2002) Tobacco Rar1, EDS1 and NPR1/NIM1 like genes are required for N-mediated resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Plant J., 30, 415–429.