Welcome to APUSH! This class places attention upon understandings equivalent to those gained in a college
level introductory course; emphasis is on the general narrative of American history from 1400 to 2014; the
study also includes an examination of the political, diplomatic, intellectual, cultural, social and economic
history of the United States.
Throughout the year you will be asked to read and outline our course textbook The Enduring Vision. This is a
college-level text, which means it will most likely be a challenging text to read. However, as you progress
through the year, it will get easier. You will also be reading scholarly articles from various historians. You will
be required to keep a reading log of your analysis of these articles. Lastly, you will be asked to analyze and
define key words and terms. You will need to explain both why and how these terms impacted American
This class moves quickly and in order to start the year off effectively, you must come in on the first day
prepared to discuss our first unit- Early America- From Native Americans thru Colonization. To do so, you
will need to complete the following assignments.
Read and outline chapters 1-3 of Enduring Vision
a. Chapters 1 & 2 due September 2nd or 3rd
b. Chapter 3 is due September 8th or 9th
Read the Christopher Columbus article and complete a reading log entry on the article.
a. Due September 4th or 5th
Complete the identifications for Unit I.
a. Due September 11th or 12th
Complete the colony charts at the back of this packet using your notes from chapters 1-3
a. Due September 8th or 9th
 Getting accustomed to reading a college textbook can be challenging, which is why you will have
outlines throughout the year to help guide your reading.
 How do you do the assignment?
o While you are reading the textbook, fill in the outline.
o This can be typed or hand written
 Some suggestions for your outlines:
o Outlines are independent work! No collaboration on outline assignments.
o The key to a good outline is to be brief, yet complete! This takes practice!
 Recommended length – If typed, single-spaced 6-10 pages in the beginning, down to 47 pages by mid-year.
o It is important that you develop an outline that HELPS you to study. Just typing or writing
down lots of words may look very impressive, but is a waste of time unless it helps you to
study details and analyze the information.
o Depending on your reading and note-taking speed, it should take from two to four hours to
outline a chapter. It will probably take you longer in the beginning until you get used to the
format of the text. Plan your time accordingly. Try not to leave it all for the day before it is
due! Pace yourself throughout the week doing about six pages per day.
o Outlines may be typed or handwritten.
I. Introduction
a. Three things Native Americans had in common:
1) They identified themselves as members of multigenerational families rather than as individuals or subjects
of governments.
2) Most emphasized reciprocity rather then coercion as way to maintain harmony within and between
3) They perceived the entire universe, including nature, as sacred
II. The First Americans, c. 13,000-2500 B.C.
a. Peopling New Worlds
i. Two main theories about the origins of the people of the Americas
-One theory holds that Siberian hunters, pursuing animals, crossed the land linking Asia with North
America during the last Ice Age, arriving around 10,500 B.C. According to this theory, the hunters
made their way over an ice bridge, and dispersed over much of the Western Hemisphere.
-A second theory suggests that the first humans arrived much earlier by boat, following the coast to
Alaska. At various points along the way, groups stopped and settled nearby or traveled inland to
establish new homes.
ii. Description of early Americans’ lives/culture
Most traveled in hunting territories in groups consisting of several families and totaling about fifteen
to fifty people. Men hunted, while women prepared food and cared for the children. Different group
exchanged ideas and goods, intermarried, and participated in religious ceremonies.
b. Archaic Societies
i. Description of how and why Native Americans’ culture changed
As the Earth’s atmosphere warmed, a large range of plants and animals developed. This allowed
archaic people to broaden their diets to include small mammals, fish and wild plants. Over time
they began living in smaller areas and establishing permanent villages. They developed different
jobs from men and women. Men hunted and fished, while women harvested and prepared wild
plants. As early as 5000 B.C. some Native Americans were starting to farm. They grew squash,
beans, fruit and by 2500 B.C. maize.
Chapter I Outline
I. Introduction
a. Three things Native Americans had in common
II. The First Americans, c. 13,000-2500 B.C.
a. Peopling New Worlds
i. Two main theories about the origins of the people of the Americas
ii. Description of early Americans’ lives/culture
b. Archaic Societies
i. Description of how and why Native Americans’ culture changed
III. Cultural Diversity, c. 2500- A.D. 1500
a. How did Native American’s way of life change?
b. Mesoamerica and South America
i. Describe the chiefdoms that grew
ii. Teotihuacan
IV. The Southwest
a. Why did maize cultivation not reach this area until 2500 B.C.- how did this affect farming?
b. Describe the Hohokam people
c. Describe the Anasazi people
d. What happened to both of these cultures?
V. The Eastern Woodlands
a. List some of the groups in the Eastern Woodlands
b. Describe their culture- explain what mounds were and what they were used for
c. Describe the Mississippian Civilizations
i. How did they clear land to farm
VI. Nonfarming societies
a. Why did these societies not farm? How did they compensate for not farming?
b. What are some examples of these societies?
c. Why did the Indians in America have no reason for a wheel?
North American Peoples on the Eve of European Contact
a. By 1500 how many people lived in the Western Hemisphere
i. How were they different? How were they similar?
b. Kinship and Gender
i. What was the kinship group of Native American societies?
ii. How did kinship impact Native American societies?
c. Spiritual and Social Values
i. What did most Native Americans worship? How did they do so?
ii. Describe the Sun Dance and its purpose
iii. Who were the “medicine men and women” in Native American tribes? What was their role?
iv. What was “reciprocity” and how did Native Americans use it?
a. Who was living in America before Columbus arrived and what were their civilizations like?
b. How did Native Americans use the land?
Chapter 2 Outline
African and European Peoples
a. Mediterranean Crossroads
i. Why is the Mediterranean crossroads important?
b. West Africa and Its Peoples
i. Who did the empire of Mali trade with?
ii. Why was Timbuktu important?
iii. Why were kinship groups important? How did they form in West Africa?
iv. How did they obtain their food?
v. Describe their economy
vi. Describe their religion and its impacts
c. European Culture and Society
i. Describe what the Renaissance was and how it encouraged Europeans to begin exploring.
ii. Describe the hierarchy in European society
iii. Describe Nuclear families- how was this different than Native Americans and Africans?
iv. Define “Joint Stock Company”
d. Religious Upheavals
i. All Europeans in 1492 were ….
ii. Describe the power of the Roman Catholic church
iii. Explain who Martin Luther is and why he was significant
iv. John Calvinv. Counter-Reformatione. The Reformation in England, 1533-1625
i. Explain why the Reformation began in England and how it led to the Anglican church
ii. “Bloody Mary” and her impact on England’s religion
iii. Puritans- (what did they believe/want to do?)
II. Europe and the Atlantic World, 1440-1600
a. Portugal and the Atlantic, 1440-1600
i. Why was Portugal able to expand first?
ii. Where di Portugal expand/explore?
b. The “New Slavery” and Racism
i. How was the established slavery in West African life different than slavery created by the
ii. How many Africans were brought across the Atlantic?
iii. Impacts of “New Slavery”
c. Europeans Reach America, 1492-1541
i. Explain why Columbus wanted to sail West across the Atlantic
ii. Describe Columbus’ first trip in 1492
iii. Where did both Verrazano and Cartier explore?
d. Spain’s Conquistadores, 1492-1536
i. Describe Cortés’ conquests
ii. Describe Pizarro’s conquests
iii. Impacts on the native people1. How were natives replaced once most of the died?
e. The Columbian Exchange
i. Define the Columbian Exchange
ii. Impacts of the diseases brought with the Europeans
1. How did the affect the European’s ability to conquer the natives? Explain.
iii. New animals/produce brought with the Europeansiv. What did Europeans get from the Americans?
v. Impact of the Columbian Exchange on different populations and races
III. Footholds in North America, 1512-1625
a. Spain’s Northern Frontier, 1512-1625
i. Why did most Spaniards come to America in the 1500s?
1. Examples:
2. What was their impact on Mississippian communities?
b. France: Initial Failures and Canadian Success, 1541-1610
i. Where did the French attempt to settle:
1. Success of these colonies?
ii. Explain the French did succeed at in America:
c. England and the Atlantic World, 1558-1603
i. What were the English looking for in America
ii. Explain who Sir Walter Raleigh was and what his goal was.
iii. Describe what happened in Roanoke
1. Why couldn’t they get more supplies?
2. What allowed the English to return to Roanoke?
3. What was the status of Roanoke?
d. The Beginnings of English Colonization, 1603-1625
i. May 16071. Who organized and financed it?
2. What was the role of the English government?
3. Describe the first settlers of Jamestown
a. Why is this a problem?
4. Explain what “starving time” was and why it happened
5. How did John Smith help save the colony?
6. Who and what ultimately saved the colony? Why?
ii. Define “headrights” system1. How did this impact Jamestown?
iii. Describe what happened in 1619 and its impact on colonial government
iv. Describe the Indian attack in 1622
v. What happened in 1624?
e. New England Beings, 1614-1625
i. Winter of 16201. Where did they land? Who were the settlers?
ii. Define separatistsiii. Where was the Mayflower headed? Why? What happened to change their plan?
iv. Define the Mayflower Compactv. Describe what happened the first winter in Plymouth
1. What allowed them to survive?
f. The Enterprising Dutch, 1609-1625
i. What colonies did they create?
1. In 1626ii. How did they make their money?
IV. Conclusion
a. Summarize the interaction of Europe, Africa and the Americas
b. By 1600c. Between 1600 and 1625-
Chapter 3 Outline
I. Introduction
a. By 1700b. Impacts of the great migration from Europe and Africa
II. The New England Way
a. A City Upon a Hill, 1625-1642
i. What happened when Charles I became king of England in 1625
ii. Who were the Puritans and what did they do?
1. What colony did they create?
iii. How would the colony not be governed by stockholders or proprietors in England?
iv. Who was their leader?
1. Describe the message of “A Model of Christian Charity”
2. What does “City Upon a Hill” mean?
v. By 1645b. The Pequot War, 1637
i. Describe the war in 1637 and its impacts
c. Dissent and Orthodoxy, 1630-1650
i. Impacts of the religious views on the colony’s government and religion
ii. Explain the role of education (why was it important, what did this make Puritan towns do)
iii. Purpose of Harvard in 16361. How was this different than other English colonies
iv. Roger Williams
1. What did he preach?
a. How and why did Massachusetts civil authorities respond to this
i. What did Williams do response?
1. Significance of this?
v. Anne Hutchinson
1. Why was she expelled from Massachusetts?
a. What did she do?
vi. What challenged most undermined the Puritans? Why?
d. Power to the Saints
i. How were the Puritans different than Anglicans?
ii. Who was accepted as church members?
iii. Who was eligible to vote and serve as elected legislatures?
1. What percent could vote? How was this different than other colonies? Why?
iv. What was the basic unit of local government? Who could participate?
v. Describe the organization of the New England- where did people live, how were towns organized?
1. What did this promote?
e. New England Families
i. What was the hierarchy of the family?
ii. What did Puritans believe were necessary for the welfare of the community?
1. What did this allow the courts to do?
iii. What rights did women have or not have?
iv. How did the life expectancy compare to other colonies? Why?
1. How was the New England population growth compare to other colonies?
v. How did they make their money? Why couldn’t they have an agricultural economy?
f. The Half-Way Covenant, 1662
i. Why was the Puritan mission beginning to fail in New England?
ii. What was happening that made the Half-Way Covenant necessary?
iii. What was the Half-Way Covenant?
g. Expansion and Native Americans, 1650-1676
i. Impact of expansion on Native Americansii. Impact on hunting lands and food supplyiii. The Indian population fell from 125,000 in 1600 toiv. How did King Philip try to work with the Puritans?
1. What happened to him?
2. Impact of King Philip’s War
h. Salem Witchcraft and the Demise of the New England War, 1691-1693
i. Five factors that contributed to the witchcraft hysteria in Salem in 1691
ii. Explain how the Salem Witch Trials started and ended
iii. How many were killed or jailed?
III. Chesapeake Society
a. State and Church in Virginia
i. What happened in 1619?
ii. Describe the structure of the House of Burgesses (include both houses)
iii. What was the established church?
1. How did religion in Virginia compare to New England?
b. Maryland
i. Who was it founded by?
1. Why was it founded?
2. What type of colony was it?
ii. Why was the Act of Religious Toleration drafted in 1649?
1. Did it work? Why or why not?
c. Death, Gender, and Kinship
i. Why did 100,000 Englishmen come to the Chesapeake by 1700
1. 90 percent came asii. What was the life expectancy in Virginia and Maryland?
1. Why?
2. How did the shortage of women impact the Chesapeake region?
d. Tobacco Shapes a Region, 1630-1670
i. What mostly shaped life in Virginia and Maryland?
1. How did this impact the formation of towns? Why?
ii. How did planters acquire huge estates?
e. Bacon’s Rebellion, 1675-1676
i. What factors set the state for Bacon’s Rebellion?
ii. What happened in 1676?
1. What happened when the royal governor tried to step in?
iii. How did the rebellion end?
iv. What was the impact of the rebellion on the hierarchy in Virginia?
f. Slavery
i. When did the first Africans arrive in Virginia?
ii. When did heavy importation of African slaves begin?
iii. Four reasons why the escalating replacement of white indentured servant by African slaves
IV. The Spread of Slavery: The Caribbean and Carolina
a. Introduction
i. Where did most English migrants head to between 1630 and 1642?
1. Where did they relocate to and what did they bring with them?
ii. By 1710…
Sugar and Slaves: The West Indies
i. What did planters in the West Indies originally grow? What did they switch to?
1. How did this impact the slave population?
2. By 1713…
c. Rice and Slaves: Carolina
i. Who settled Carolina?
1. How did they attract settlers?
2. Where did most settlers come from?
ii. What staple crop did the Carolinians discover in 1690?
1. How did this impact the colony and the slave population?
a. How did this make South Carolina different than other British colonies?
V. The Middle Colonies
a. Precursors: New Netherland and New Sweden
i. Why was New Netherland the first multiethnic society in America?
b. English Conquests: New York and the Jerseys
i. What happened in 1664?
ii. Explain how New Jersey transformed from New Netherland to a British royal colony in 1704.
c. Quaker Pennsylvania
i. Why did William Penn get the land for Pennsylvania in 1686?
ii. What were Penn’s goals for the colony?
iii. Describe how religion was treated in the colony.
iv. How did the colony interact with the Indians?
v. What happened in 1704?
VI. Rivals for North America
a. France Claims a Continent
i. By the early 1700s the French…
ii. How was French settlement different than the British settlements?
b. New Mexico: The Pueblo Revolt
i. What did Franciscan missionaries force the Natives to do?
ii. What were encomiendas?
iii. Who led the Pueblo Revolt in 1680? Why? What were its results?
c. Florida and Texas
i. How did Florida experience trouble with Native Americans?
ii. How did France’s establishment of Louisiana impact Texas?
a. How did the Spanish, French and English empires compare in size and population?
b. What regions had emerged in the English colonies? (describe all four of them)
i. However, in all sections, most of the white colonists were…
 Read the article and underline/highlight and make notes in the margins while you read.
 Steps to completing a reading log: (these should be numbered in your log)
1. Write the name of the article, the author, and the date it was published
2. Write the author’s thesis
3. While you’re reading take notes- what information is the author giving to support his
4. Write a brief summary of what you read. (About 3 sentences)
5. Significance- Explain in a few sentences why this information is important.
 A standard part of many college history courses is the "identification paragraph." Rather than simply
requiring you to memorize events and respond to a list, the identification paragraph requires you to
explain historical information, as well as to interpret that information.
 A proper identification paragraph should include answers to the who, what, where, when and the
“So What?” (or What is the historical significance of the person, place, or event?)
 The so what, or significance answer, is the most important part! This is your analysis, which is
explaining why the term is important, or how it impacted American history.
 Each identification paragraph should be about 3-5 sentences, or however long it takes to adequately
define and explain the term’s significance.
 To recap: each identification must both define and explain the significance of the term.
 Below is a list of identifications for this unit:
1. Lost colony of Roanoke (be sure to include Sir Walter Raleigh and John White in this answer)
2. Mayflower Compact
3. Columbian Exchange
4. Jamestown (be sure to include VA Company, John Smith and John Rolfe in this answer)
5. Plymouth (be sure to include Pilgrims/separatists in this answer)
6. City Upon a Hill (be sure to include John Winthrop and Puritans in this answer)
7. Pequot War
8. Roger Williams
9. Anne Hutchinson & Antinomians
10. Half-Way Covenant
11. King Philip’s War
12. Virginia House of Burgesses
13. Bacon’s Rebellion
14. William Penn
15. Pueblo Revolt
How do I do write an identification?
Social Science and College History professors love to ask “identifications” on tests. Essentially, these
identifications are short essays on an item the professor identified. The following must be answered about
each identification:
Executive Order
slavery in the
rebelling states
Washington D.C.
September 22, 1862
and January 1, 1863,
after the battle of
Lincoln waited until after a victory at Antietam to pass the
Emancipation Proclamation, so the Union would not seem
desperate. Passing the Proclamation sent the message that freeing
the slaves would be a goal of the Civil War. This kept European
countries, such as England and France, from helping the
Confederate army. It also allowed African Americans to fight in the
Union army. However, it did not free all the slaves; it only freed the
slaves in the Confederacy.
When writing an identification, you need to clearly identify the significance of the item being identified in
a historical context as well as explain the who, what and when. Remember, the more specific the better.
Here are a few tips:
When identifying a person, mention:
 The country or region where he/she lived.
 The time when he or she lived (this does not always mean mentioning specific dates; mentioning
wars or other events that the person was involved in may be sufficient).
When identifying a thing, state:
 What it is or was (a document, an invention, an idea, etc.)
 What it includes or involves or does.
 Who was responsible for it.
 Why it is significant.
When identifying a place, state:
 Where the place is (or was) located.
 Why the place is famous.
When identifying an event, mention:
 When the event occurred (the more exact you can be, the better)
 Where the event occurred.
 Why the event occurred.
 The results of the event.
Excerpt from: Writing for College History, A Short Guidebook
Let's walk through an example. Usually the instructor will pick critical names of people, events, or
developments that have been topics of the instructor's lectures. For our example, we'll write a history
identification paragraph on ziggurats (a classic exam subject for an Early Western or World Civilization
Now, if you were constructing an I. D. paragraph on ziggurats you would want to address the 5 W's as
previously mentioned.
You could accomplish this task in a minimum of about four sentences. After a quick review of your notes,
you might easily come up with:
What = a temple , Where = Mesopotamia
This information could be the core of your introductory first sentence: A ziggurat was a temple in ancient
Mesopotamia. So far, so good.
How about When? You might know that ziggurats existed in Mesopotamia for centuries. So, a safe dating
would be to give a range: A ziggurat was a temple in ancient Mesopotamia. Meso- potamians worshipped at
ziggurats for centuries from c. 3000 B.C.E-1000 B.C.E.
The Who aspect of this particular identification paragraph is a little more complicated. Since we cannot
easily come up with an individual associated with a ziggurat, we can instead use an official, such as the
priest-kings who performed sacrifices there. So, now we have a paragraph in progress that reads:
A ziggurat was a temple in ancient Mesopotamia. Mesopotamians worshipped at ziggurats for centuries from c.
3000 B.C.E-1000 B.C.E. The priest-kings of Mesopotamian cities ruled from the ziggurats and performed
sacrifices there.
Thus far, we have covered Who, What, Where, and When and so have four of the five essential points. Since
this covers 80%, our I. D. paragraph to this point might realistically be given the grade of "B." To complete it,
we need to answer So What— the historical significance part. It is useful to think of this as the concluding
sentence of your paragraph. A quick and simple way to set up the sentence is to write: Ziggurats are
historically significant because....
This is where you have to do some interpretation. Ultimately, you will want to tie the specific example of
ziggurats to the larger general historical view of the period (in this case, the ancient Near East). If you are
taking an early Western or World Civilization course, you probably will have noticed that your textbook and
instructor have stressed the religious nature of society in the ancient Near East. This would fit very well with
your identification paragraph on ziggurats. So, in the end, your I. D. paragraph might read:
A ziggurat was a temple in ancient Mesopotamia. Mesopotamians worshipped at ziggurats for centuries from
3000 B.C.E.-1000 B.C.E. The priest-kings of Mesopotamian cities ruled from the ziggurats and performed
sacrifices there. Ziggurats are historically significant because they show the central role religion had in ancient
Mesopotamia and in the ancient Near East.
Examples of Good and Bad Identification Paragraphs
The following are some examples of identification paragraphs for lower-division introductory history
courses (Western, World, and U.S.). Regardless of the course you are taking, it will be useful for you to
examine these samples from a technical point of view. As you read through the examples, try to evaluate
them in terms of the guidelines you have read. Do they have at least three sentences? Do they address
"Who, What, Where, When, and Historical Significance"? Do they have complete sentences?
Identification Paragraph #1: Ziggurat A ziggurat was a temple in ancient society. Ziggurats were very
important in ancient nations.
Comments: This I. D. paragraph defines "what" the ziggurat was, but that is about it. It needs the "where"
(Mesopotamia), "when" (c. 3000 B.C.E.), "who" (the priest-kings who conducted sacrifices, issued laws, and
collected taxes here), and "historical significance" (showing the central role of religion in ancient
Mesopotamian society or something to that effect).
Identification Paragraph # 2: Pharaoh This was a king of a town or municipality or borough in olden times.
He was a priest. There was one in each town in Asia. He was in charge of sacrifices and taking care of widows
and orphans.
Comments: This paragraph is not only lacking information, it contains misinformation. While a pharaoh was
a monarch and so a type of "king," he was in charge of the Kingdom of Egypt, not a city-state "in Asia."
There was not a pharaoh in every "town, municipality, or borough," but one for the entire kingdom. Also,
the student does not give even an approximate date, just "olden times." Again, the student needs to go
through the checklist of who, what, where, when, and historical significance.
Identification Paragraph #3: Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic Revolution, or "New Stone Age," took place
c. 10,000 B.C.E. During this development early humans shifted from hunting and gathering to agriculture as
their economic basis. This happened at various places, probably simultaneously, including the Fertile Crescent,
West Africa, and India. Agriculture is important because it created a surplus of food and allowed populations to
rise. It also freed 10% of the population from food production and this allowed for specialization of labor. This
led to the creation of towns and to government.
Comments: This I. D. paragraph is quite good. The author deals with "who, what, where, when," and even
historical significance. In comparison to the preceding two examples, an instructor would probably quickly
give it an "A." The one flaw (and again this would be minor) is that the author jumps to the creation of
government at the end of the paragraph without directly spelling out the connection to agriculture.
Identification Paragraph #4: Articles of Confederation When the American Colonies were emerging as the
winner of their revolution against Great Britain at the end of the 1770s, their leaders (such as John Hancock and
Robert Morris) realized they needed to form some kind of unified government. They came up with the first
Constitution of the United States of America called the "Articles of Confederation" (ratified in 1781). The articles
provided for a common defense and foreign policy, but had a weak centralized executive and had trouble raising
taxes to deal with debts incurred during the war of independence. This ultimately led to Shay’s Rebellion and
the writing of the current constitution in 1787 with a much federal government. George Washington was the
first president under this second (and still existing) constitution.
Comments: This is a solid identification paragraph. It deals with the five Ws in a clear manner. The author
could give a little more clarification on the problems of the Articles of Confederation to provide a clearer
analysis of how such problems led to our current constitution.
Identification Paragraph #5: Charles Darwin Charles Darwin was a rich Englishman of the 19th century who
is famous for his books Origin of Species (1859) and the Descent of Man (1871). After studying theology,
Darwin went on a voyage around the world on the H.M.S. Beagle and was impressed by the diversity of plant
and animal life which led him to develop the "Theory of Evolution " in which he argued that plants and animals
evolved over a long period of time and were affected by natural selection and the survival of the fittest. In the
Descent of Man he argued that human beings also evolved over thousands of years from earlier forms. His
theories are important because they conflicted with the traditional Biblical view presented at the beginning of
the Book of Genesis that states that God created the world, plants, animals, and humans in the course of a
week (in 4004 BC according to Bishop Ussher).
Comments: This is clearly a very strong I. D. paragraph. The student not only effectively covers the five Ws,
but also develops the examples and historical significance well. The second sentence is overly long and
could have been split after "diversity of plant and animal life." One possible weakness in this paragraph is
that the student may have spent more than the allotted time in composing it, potentially forfeiting time on
other sections of the exam. Again, make sure you have enough total time to develop your identification
paragraphs and the essay (or other parts of your exam) adequately.
 Complete the following charts using your notes from your outline and your textbook.
 Be as detailed as you can be. The more information, the better.
 You do not need to use complete sentences.
Reason for Founding
New England
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Type of
Colonial Region
New Jersey
New York
South Carolina
North Carolina
New England
Origins of
First Settlers
Reason for
New England
Present Day

ap us history summer assignment